Hardwick Township, Warren County, N.J.


US 80.  Exit 19; turn right on Route 517 and then very quickly a left following the sign that says Johnsonburg (Route 612).  Turn right onto Route 519 (either in town or earlier by taking the bypass -- Hope Johnsonburg Road).  Turn left onto Route 661 (or if you took the bypass just go straight) and travel one mile to Route 94.  Turn left onto Route 94.  Travel 1.9 miles and turn right onto Route 659 (the sign says Stillwater) .  Drive 1.2 miles.  (You will pass a hiking spot for Paulinskill Valley Trail.)  Turn right onto Stillwater Road (Route 521) and travel 0.4 mile to a right turn into the park.  

A better parking area for about 6 to 8 cars is on the right just after the pull-off on the left for the Paulinskill Valley Trail.  You walk northeast and will pass the remains of the walls of a lime factory.  


Here is an abandoned railroad spur of the New York, Susquehanna and Western Railroad that transported ice blocks from White Lake to a local creamery.

Near White Lake itself are the remains of a marl works. Marl is a soft, calcium-rich limestone clay. The marl was dredged out and processed to make cement and fertilizer. This business failed in 1900.

Up along the ridges are the remains of a lime kiln. Here are keyhole-arched kilns. In these kilns alternating layers of wood and limestone were set ablaze which eventually produced a calcium-rich powder that was hydrated and loaded on wagons to be taken to farms where it was spread on fields.

In the woods are the ruins of a 1950s Girl Scout camp.

History of the old Vass homestead:

On the north shore of White Lake stands a 200 year old farmhouse made from cut limestone that is the source for a very interesting history written by Frank Dale.

1764  --  one of the early settlers in the Hardwick area was German immigrant Johann Wass (known as John Vass). Starting out adult immigrant life being indentured to a Hardwick citizen, he worked his way upwards.   He had a total of 4 wives and 13 children.

1802  -- the 38-year-old Vass buys a 550 acre farm on White Lake.  They lived in a log cabin.

1804  -- his third wife dies.  

1805  -- marries Margaretta Flock.

1812  -- Vass builds a two-storey stone house. Vass buys other farms in the area.

1848  -- son Isaac Vass becomes a constable.

1852  -- John Vass dies at age 88.

1879  --  Isaac Vass, son of John and Margaretta, owns the house. Isaac served as tax collector and Justice of the Peace.  The Knickerbocher Ice Company of Pennsylvania buys a piece of the lakefront to produce ice.  In summer they processed the marl from the lake for use as fertilizer and also in cesspools. Soon it was used to make cement. For a brief period the Newark Sanitary and Manufacturing Company mined marl here.

The New York, Susquehanna & Western Railroad passed just south of White Pond and a spur ran to the cement plant.  

1893  -- Isaac's son, Frank, purchased the farm from his mother after his father's death.  The Waterloo Ice Co. and the Brady Ice Company took over operations at the lake.

1922  -- Frank Vass sells his property to local farmer George Van Riper, who converted the farm to a dairy operation.

1941  -- George Van Riper dies.  His wife sells to Edwin H. Smith, a gentleman farmer.

1958 -- Peter and Nicholas Kero, quarry owners and paving contractors, buy the farm for their Kero-Hardwick Corporation.  In the summer they vacationed here and hunted deer and bear in the fall. They eventually sell to the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, who in turn sold to the Metal Improvement Company.

1997 --  the property was acquired by a combination of the Ridge and Valley Conservancy, Green Acres, Warren County, and foundation groups, deeding ownership to the Conservancy and the State of New Jersey.

1999  -- property listed by the National Register of Historic Places.

Skylands website:


Karl Anderson

Plants noted during a 1998-1999 Botanical inventory of the 390 acres of the White Lake Natural Area that is east and south of Stillwater Road, for the Ridge and Valley Conservancy, with some additions from a Torrey Botanical Society field trip on September 23, 2000 and observations by Ted Gordon, Linda Kelly, William Standaert and Patrick Cooney. Flowering and fruiting dates mostly from Patrick Cooney and William Standaert.

Scientific nomenclature is generally per Gleason & Cronquist, Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada - Second Edition (New York Botanical Garden, 1991).

English names from a variety of sources.

(Fl….) indicates observed flowering dates.

(Fr….) indicates observed fruiting dates.

Note: Species frequency definitions are somewhat subjective, but in general an abundant species is one that is present and easily found in all areas of suitable habitat, and areas of its habitat are extensive. A common species is one that appears to be present at low density in all areas of suitable habitat, but may require some searching; or, plant may be present in good numbers but in only a few locations. An uncommon species is one that is not present in all areas of suitable habitat, but has more than ten individuals or small stations. An occasional species is one for which fewer than ten individuals or small stations were noted. Habitats listed for species are those most typical for the species, or the habitat in which a particular species was actually found , and not necessarily all the habitats in which a species occurs.

Acer negundo (box elder) (uncommon; roadside)
Acer nigrum (black maple) (occasional; forest)
Acer platanoides (Norway maple) (uncommon; roadside)
Acer rubrum (red maple) (common; marsh, streamside, and forest)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple) (common; forest)
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven) (common; roadside, dry field, and trailside)
Betula lenta (black birch) (uncommon; forest)
Carpinus caroliniana (ironwood) (common; forest)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory) (uncommon; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Carya glabra (pignut hickory) (uncommon; forest )
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory) (uncommon; forest)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory) (uncommon; forest)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry) (uncommon; forest)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) (uncommon; forest)
Fagus grandifolia (American beech) (uncommon; forest )
Fraxinus americana (white ash) (common; forest)
Juglans nigra (black walnut) (occasional; forest)
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar) (common; forest)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree) (common; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Morus alba (white mulberry) (occasional; roadside)
Ostrya virginiana (hop hornbeam) (uncommon; forest)
Picea rubens (red spruce) (occasional; forest)
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore) (uncommon; forest)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) (occasional; forest)
Prunus serotina (black cherry) (common; forest)
Quercus alba (white oak) (common; forest)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak) (uncommon; streamside)
Quercus muhlenbergii (chinquapin oak) (uncommon; forest)
Quercus palustris (pin oak) (occasional)
Quercus rubra (red oak) (occasional; forest)
Quercus velutina (black oak) (common; forest)
Salix babylonica (weeping willow) (occasional; lake edge)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras) (uncommon; roadside and forest)
Tilia americana (basswood) (uncommon; forest)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) (common; forest)
Ulmus americana (American elm) (uncommon; forest)
Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) (occasional; roadside)
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm) (occasional; damp thicket)

Shrubs and Sub-shrubs:
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) (common; forest and trailside)
Berberis vulgaris (common barberry) (occasional damp thicket)
Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen) (uncommon; forest) (Fl. 7/04/98)
Cornus alternifolia (alternate-leaved dogwood) (occasional; forest)
Cornus amomum (silky dogwood) (uncommon; marsh and streamside) (Fl. 6/09/98)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood) (occasional; damp thicket)
Cornus sericea (red osier dogwood) (uncommon; marsh and streamside)
Corylus americana (American hazel) (uncommon; forest and damp thicket)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazel) (occasional; forest)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) (uncommon; roadside and forest)
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus) (occasional; roadside)
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry) (occasional; forest)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel) (common; forest and streamside)
Ligustrum sp. (privet) (occasional; trailside)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush) (common; forest)
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow honeysuckle) (common; roadside and forest) (Fr. 7/04/98)
Myrica pensylvanica (bayberry) (occasional; forest)
Philadelphus coronarius (mock orange) (occasional; trailside) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Potentilla fruticosa (shrubby cinquefoil) (abundant; lake edge and marl fen) (Fl. 6/09/98, 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Rhamnus cathartica (common buckthorn) (occasional; damp thicket)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac) (occasional; roadside)
Ribes americanum (wild black currant) (uncommon; forest and trailside)
Ribes hirtellum (low wild gooseberry) (occasional; forest)
Ribes sativum (garden red currant) (occasional; roadside)
Rosa carolina (pasture rose) (uncommon; dry field)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose) (uncommon; damp thicket and forest) (Fl. 6/09/98, 6/05/99)
Rosa palustris (swamp rose) (uncommon; lake edge and marsh) (Fl. 6/29/98)
Rubus flagellaris (dewberry) (uncommon; forest)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry) (uncommon; trailside and forest) (Fr. 7/04/98)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry) (common; trailside, roadside, and forest)
Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow) (occasional; lake edge)
Salix candida (hoary willow) (occasional; marsh)
Salix discolor (pussy willow) (uncommon; lake edge)
Salix sericea (silky willow) (uncommon; marsh)
Sambucus canadensis (common elder) (uncommon; streamside, marsh, and damp thicket)
Spiraea alba var. latifolia (meadowsweet) (uncommon; damp thicket) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush) (uncommon; marsh) (Fl. 7/06/98)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut) (uncommon; forest)
Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac) (uncommon; marsh and marl fen)
Vaccinium pallidum (early low blueberry) (common; forest)
Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry) (occasional; forest)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple-leaved viburnum) (common; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Viburnum dentatum (arrowwood) (common; damp thicket and forest)
Viburnum lentago (nannyberry) (uncommon; damp thicket and marsh)
Viburnum prunifolium (black haw) (common; forest)
Zanthoxylum americanum (prickly ash) (common; forest) (Fr. 7/04/98)

Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut) (common; forest)
Apios americana (groundnut) (occasional; damp thicket)
Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed) (occasional; roadside and trailside)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet) (uncommon; trailside and forest)
Clematis occidentalis (purple clematis) (occasional; limestone ledge)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower) (occasional; damp thicket) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Cuscuta gronovii (dodder) (common; marsh and streamside)
Dioscorea villosa (wild yamroot) (uncommon; forest)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) (occasional; roadside) (Fl. 6/9/98)
Menispermum canadense (Canada moonseed) (uncommon; damp thicket and forest)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper) (common; forest and damp thicket)
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade) (uncommon; damp thicket and trailside)
(Fl. 6/05/99, 6/9/98, 7/06/98)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy) (common; roadside and forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape) (common; forest and damp thicket)
Vitis vulpina (frost grape) (common; forest)

Broad-leaved Herbs:
Abutilon theophrasti (velvetleaf) (occasional; roadside)
Acalypha rhomboidea (three-seeded mercury) (occasional; trailside)
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) (common; roadside and dry field) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Acorus calamus (sweet flag) (uncommon; sinkhole pond)
Actaea alba (white baneberry) (uncommon; forest) (Fl. 7/04/98, Fr. 7/28/98)
Agalinis purpurea (purple gerardia) (occasional; damp field)
Agrimonia pubescens. (downy agrimony) (uncommon; forest) (Fl. 7/06/98, 7/28/98)
Alisma subcordatum (small water plantain) (uncommon; marsh and marl fen)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) (abundant; forest and roadside) (Fl. 6/05/99, 7/04/98)
Allium vineale (field garlic) (uncommon; dry field) (Fl. 7/04/98)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) (uncommon; roadside and trailside)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed) (uncommon; forest and damp thicket) (Fl. 7/04/98, Fr. 7/28/98).
Anemonella thalictroides (rue anemone) (uncommon; forest)
Antennaria neglecta (field pussytoes) (uncommon; roadside and dry field)
Antennaria plantaginifolia (plantain-leaved pussytoes) (uncommon; forest)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp) (uncommon; roadside and dry field)
Apocynum sibiricum (clasping-leaved dogbane) (occasional; marsh) (Fl. 7/06/98)
Aquilegia canadensis (wild columbine) (common; forest and limestone ledge)
Arabis laevigata (smooth rock cress) (occasional; limestone ledge)
Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla) (abundant; forest)
Aralia racemosa (spikenard) (occasional; limestone ledge and forest)
Arctium lappa (great burdock) (occasional; roadside) (Fl. 7/06/98)
Arisaema triphyllum (jack-in-the-pulpit) (common; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort) (uncommon; roadside and trailside)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger) (abundant; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) (uncommon; marsh and streamside) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/06/98, 7/28/98)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) (uncommon; roadside and dry field) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/06/98)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed) (occasional; dry field) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/06/98, 7/28/98)
Aster acuminatus (whorled aster) (uncommon; forest)
Aster cordifolius (heart-leaved aster) (uncommon; forest)
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster) (common; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Aster lanceolatus (panicled aster) (uncommon; streamside and damp thicket)
Aster lateriflorus (calico aster) (uncommon; dry field)
Aster lowrieanus (Lowrie's aster) (occasional; forest)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster) (occasional; streamside and damp thicket)
Aster pilosus (heath aster) (uncommon; roadside and dry field)
Aster puniceus (purple-stemmed aster) (occasional; streamside)
Aster racemosus (small white aster) (uncommon; dry field)
Barbarea vulgaris (common wintercress) (uncommon; roadside and trailside) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Bidens cernua (nodding bur-marigold) (uncommon; marsh and streamside)
Bidens connata (swamp beggar ticks) (uncommon; marsh and streamside)
Bidens vulgata (tall beggar ticks) (uncommon; marsh and damp field)
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) (common; marsh and streamside) (Fl. 7/06/98, 7/28/98)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold) (uncommon; intermittent pond)
Cardamine pensylvanica (Pennsylvania bitter cress) (uncommon; marsh and streamside) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Carduus acanthoides (plumeless thistle) (occasional; dry field) (Fl. 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Carlina vulgaris (Carline thistle) (occasional; dry field and forest)
Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed) (uncommon; roadside and trailside)
Chelidonium majus (celandine) (common; trailside) (Fl. 6/05/99, 6/9/98, 7/04/98)
Chelone glabra (turtlehead) (occasional; intermittent pond)
Chenopodium album (lamb's quarters) (uncommon; roadside and trailside)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy) (common; dry field & roadside) (Fl. 6/05/99, 6/9/98, 6/29/98, 7/04/98)
Cichorium intybus (chicory) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 7/06/98, 7/28/98)
Cicuta maculata (water hemlock) (uncommon; marsh and streamside) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/04/98)
Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade) (uncommon; forest)
Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Cirsium discolor (field thistle) (uncommon; dry field and roadside)
Cirsium muticum (swamp thistle) (uncommon; marsh, marl fen, and streamside)
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) (uncommon; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Collinsonia canadensis (horse balm) (abundant; forest) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Comandra umbellata (bastard toadflax) (uncommon; forest)
Conyza canadensis (horseweed) (common; dry field and roadside)
Corallorhiza odontorhiza (late coralroot) (occasional, forest) (Fl. 9/23/00)
Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort) (uncommon; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Cypripedium calceolus (yellow lady's slipper) (occasional; damp thicket)
Daucus carota (wild carrot) (common; roadside and dry field) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Desmodium glutinosum (pointed-leaved tick-trefoil) (common; forest) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Desmodium paniculatum (panicled tick-trefoil) (uncommon; damp thicket and trailside) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink) (uncommon; roadside and trailside) (Fl. 6/09/98, 7/04/98)
Dipsacus sylvestris (teasel) (uncommon; roadside)
Duchesnea indica (Indian strawberry) (uncommon; trailside and roadside)
Epilobium coloratum (purple-leaved willow-herb) (uncommon; marsh)
Epipactis helleborine (helleborine) (common; forest)
Erechtites hieraciifolia (pilewort) (uncommon; dry field and roadside)
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/09/98, 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Erigeron philadelphicus (Philadelphia fleabane) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/05/99, 6/9/978)
Erigeron pulchellus (robin's plantain) (common; dry field and forest)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-Pye weed) (common; marsh and streamside) (Fl. 7/28/98) (near Fl. 6/05/99)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset) (uncommon; streamside and marl fen) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot) (common; forest) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge) (uncommon; roadside and trailside) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Euphorbia nutans (eyebane) (occasional; trailside)
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod) (common; dry field)
Fragaria virginiana (common strawberry) (uncommon; trailside)
Galium aparine (cleavers) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Galium circaezens (wild licorice) (uncommon; forest) (near Fl. 6/05/99)
Galium mollugo (wild madder) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/05/99, 6/9/98, 6/29/98, 7/04/98)
Galium tinctorium (stiff marsh bedstraw) (uncommon; lake edge and damp field)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Galium verum (yellow bedstraw) (occasional; dry field)
Gentianopsis crinita (fringed gentian) (common; marl fen, streamside, and damp field)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) (common; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Geum canadense (white avens) (common; forest) (Fl. 6/29/98)
Geum vernum (spring avens) (uncommon; trailside)
Glechoma hederacea (gill over the ground) (uncommon; roadside and trailside) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Hackelia virginiana (Virginia stickseed) (uncommon; forest)
Hedeoma pulegioides (American pennyroyal) (uncommon; forest)
Helianthus strumosus (pale-leaved sunflower) (uncommon; damp thicket)
Hemerocallis fulva (tawny day-lily) (occasional; roadside) (Fl. 7/04/98)
Hepatica americana (round-lobed hepatica) (uncommon; forest)
Heuchera americana (alumroot) (uncommon; forest and limestone ledge)
Hieracium caespitosum (field hawkweed) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Hieracium paniculatum (panicled hawkweed) (occasional; forest)
Hieracium venosum (rattlesnake weed) (occasional; forest)
Hypericum perforatum (common St. Johnswort) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/28/98)
Hypericum punctatum (spotted St. Johnswort) (uncommon; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Hypochoeris radicata (cat's-ear) (uncommon; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/9/98, 7/28/98)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow stargrass) (uncommon; dry field and forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Impatiens capensis (spotted touch-me-not) (abundant; marsh and streamside) (Fl. 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Iris versicolor (blue flag) (uncommon; lake and marsh) (Fl. 6/05/99, 6/9/98)
Krigia biflora (two-flowered Cynthia) (common; forest and trailside) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Laportea canadensis (wood nettle) (uncommon; forest)
Lapsana communis (nipplewort) (uncommon; roadside and trailside) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort) (occasional; roadside) (Fl. 6/07/98)
Lepidium campestre (field pepper grass) (uncommon; dry field and roadside)
Lepidium virginicum (pepper grass) (uncommon; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 7/06/98)
Lespedeza capitata (round-headed bush clover) (common; dry field)
Lespedeza repens (creeping bush clover) (occasional; forest)
Linaria vulgaris (butter-and-eggs) (common; roadside)
Liparis loeselii (Loesel's twayblade) (occasional; damp thicket)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower) (common; streamside and intermittent pond) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco) (uncommon; dry field and trailside) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Lobelia kalmii (Kalm's lobelia) (common; damp field and marl fen)
Lobelia siphilitica (great lobelia) (common; damp thicket, streamside, and trailside)
Lobelia spicata (spiked lobelia) (uncommon; damp field and dry field) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Ludwigia palustris (water purslane) (uncommon; streamside)
Lycopus americanus (cut-leaved water horehound) (uncommon; marsh and streamside)
Lycopus virginicus (Virginia bugleweed) (uncommon; marsh and streamside)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife) (uncommon; streamside and lake edge)
Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort) (occasional; damp thicket) (Fl. 6/9/098, 7/04/98)
Lysimachia terrestris (yellow loosestrife) (occasional; lake edge and marsh) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/06/98)
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) (common; lake edge, marsh, and streamside) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/06/98, 7/28/98)
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower) (common; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Matricaria matricarioides (pineapple weed) (uncommon; roadside and trailside) (Fl. 6/05/99, 7/06/98, 7/28/98)
Medeola virginiana (Indian cucumber-root) (occasional; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Medicago lupulina (black medick) (common; dry field) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Melanthium hybridum (broad-leaved bunchflower) (occasional; forest)
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover) (common; dry field and roadside)
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover) (uncommon; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/9/98, 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/06/98)
Mentha arvensis (wild mint) (uncommon; marsh and streamside) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry) (uncommon; forest)
Mitella diphylla (mitrewort) (uncommon; forest)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot) (uncommon; roadside and dry field) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe) (uncommon; forest) (Fl. 7/06/98)
Muscari botryoides (grape hyacinth) (occasional; roadside)
Nepeta cataria (catnip) (occasional; roadside)
Nymphaea odorata (white water lily) (common; lake) (Fl. 6/9/98, 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Oenothera biennis (evening primrose) (occasional; roadside and field)
Oenothera perennis (small sundrops) (occasional; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Orchis spectabilis (showy orchis) (occasional; forest)
Orontium aquaticum (golden club) (occasional; streamside)
Osmorhiza claytonii (sweet cicely) (common; forest)
Osmorhiza longistylis (aniseroot) (common; forest)
Oxalis stricta (yellow wood sorrel) (common; roadside and trailside) (Fl. 6/05/99, 6/9/98 7/06/98, 7/28/98)
Parnassia glauca (grass-of-Parnassus) (common; marl fen)
Pastinaca sativa (wild parsnip) (uncommon; roadside and dry field) (near Fl. 6/05/99, 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/06/98, 7/28/98)
Pedicularis canadensis (wood betony) (uncommon; forest)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum) (occasional; lake edge and streamside)
Penstemon digitalis (foxglove beardtongue) (uncommon; field and trailside) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/06/98)
Phryma leptostachya (lopseed) (uncommon; forest)
Physalis sp. (ground cherry) (occasional, trailside)
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) (uncommon; roadside and trailside) (Fl. 7/06/98, 7/28/98)
Pilea pumila (clearweed) (common; marsh and intermittent pond)
Pimpinella saxifraga (burnet saxifrage) (uncommon; dry field)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) (common; roadside, dry field, and trailside) (Fl. 6/9/98, 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Plantago major (common plantain) (common; roadside, dry field, and trailside)
Plantago rugelii (red-stemmed plantain) (uncommon; trailside)
Podophyllum peltatum (mayapple) (common; forest)
Polygala verticillata (whorled polygala) (occasional; marl fen)
Polygonatum pubescens (hairy Solomon's-seal) (common; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose knotweed) (uncommon; trailside and forest) (Fl. 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb) (occasional; roadside)
Polygonum punctatum (dotted smartweed) (uncommon; marsh)
Polygonum sagittatum (arrow-leaved tearthumb) (uncommon; marsh)
Polygonum virginianum (jumpseed) (abundant; forest) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed) (uncommon; lake edge and streamside)
Potamogeton illinoensis (Illinois pondweed) (uncommon; lake and stream)
Potentilla canadensis (dwarf cinquefoil) (uncommon; trailside and dry field) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Potentilla norvegica (rough cinquefoil) (occasional; dry field)
Potentilla recta (rough-fruited cinquefoil) (uncommon; dry field) (Fl. 6/9/98, 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Prenanthes altissima (tall white lettuce) (occasional; forest)
Proserpinaca palustris (mermaid weed) (occasional; marl fen)
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) (common; roadside, trailside, dry field) (Fl. 6/9/98, 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (narrow-leaved mountain mint) (occsnl; damp fld) (Fl.6/29/98,7/06/98,7/28/98)
Pycnanthemum virginianum (Virginia mountain mint) (uncommon; dry field)
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf) (occasional; forest) (Fl. 7/04/98)
Ranunculus abortivus (kidney-leaf buttercup) (common; trailside and forest)
Ranunculus acris (tall buttercup) (uncommon; trailside and forest) (Fl. 6/05/99, 6/9/98)
Ranunculus hispidus (hispid buttercup) (uncommon; forest)
Ranunculus recurvatus (hooked crowfoot) (uncommon; forest)
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (watercress) (uncommon; marsh)
Rorippa sylvestris (creeping yellow cress) (common; dry field)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Rudbeckia laciniata (tall coneflower) (uncommon; marsh)
Rudbeckia triloba (thin-leaved coneflower) (uncommon; trailside and damp thicket) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Rumex crispus (curled dock) (occasional; roadside) (near Fl. 6/05/99)
Rumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock) (occasional; roadside)
Sagittaria latifolia (broad-leaved arrowhead) (uncommon; marsh and marl fen)
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot) (common; forest)
Sanicula canadensis (Canada snakeroot) (uncommon; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Sanicula gregaria (clustered snakeroot) (uncommon; forest)
Saponaria officinalis (soapwort) (occasional; roadside) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant) (common; marl fen)
Satureja vulgaris (wild basil) (uncommon; roadside and dry field) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98)
Saxifraga pensylvanica (swamp saxifrage) (occasional; marsh)
Saxifraga virginiensis (early saxifrage) (common; forest and limestone ledge)
Scutellaria lateriflora (mad-dog skullcap) (occasional; streamside and marsh) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Senecio obovatus (round-leaved ragwort) (abundant; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Silene latifolia (white campion) (occasional; roadside) (Fl. 6/9/989, 6/29/98, 7/04/98)
Silene vulgaris (bladder campion) (uncommon; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/29/98, 7/28/98)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (stout blue-eyed grass) (uncommon; forest and damp field) (Fl. 6/05/99, 6/9/98, 7/04/98)
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's-seal) (common; forest)
Smilacina stellata (starry false Solomon's-seal) (uncommon; forest)
Solanum carolininense (horse nettle) (occasional; dry field) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade) (occasional; roadside) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod) (common; forest and trailside)
Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod) (common; forest and trailside)
Solidago flexicaulis (zig-zag goldenrod) (uncommon; forest)
Solidago gigantea (late goldenrod) (uncommon; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod) (uncommon; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Solidago patula (rough-leaved goldenrod) (uncommon; marsh)
Solidago rugosa (rough-stemmed goldenrod) (common; dry field and roadside)
Solidago uliginosa (swamp goldenrod) (uncommon; marl fen and streamside)
Sonchus arvensis (field sow-thistle) (occasional; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Spiranthes cernua (nodding ladies'-tresses) (occasional; marl fen)
Spiranthes lucida (shining ladies'-tresses) (occasional; marl fen)
Stellaria media (common chickweed) (common; roadside and trailside)
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage) (common; marsh)
Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 7/06/98)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue) (uncommon; forest)
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadow rue) (common; marsh, streamside, and damp thicket) (Fl. 6/9/98, 7/04/98, 7/06/98, 7/28/98)
Tragopogon dubius (goat's beard) (uncommon; dry field and roadside)
Trientalis borealis (starflower) (common; forest)
Trifolium campestre (low hop-clover) (occasional; dry field)
Trifolium dubium (least hop-clover) (occasional; dry field)
Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) (uncommon; dry field)
Trifolium pratense (red clover) (common; dry field, roadside) (Fl. 6/09/98, 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98, 6/05/99 )
Trifolium repens (white clover) (common; dry field and roadside) (Fl. 6/9/98, 6/29/98, 7/04/98, 7/28/98, 6/05/99)
Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot) (common; roadside and trailside)
Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail) (uncommon; lake edge)
Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail) (common; lake edge and marsh)
Uvularia perfoliata (perfoliate bellwort) common; forest
Uvularia sessilifolia (sessile-leaved bellwort) uncommon; forest
Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein) (occasional; dry field) (Fl. 7/04/98)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) (occasional; dry field) (Fl. 7/04/98)
Verbena hastata (blue vervain) (common; marsh and streamside0 (Fl. 7/28/98)
Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) (uncommon; trailside) (Fl. 7/06/98, waning 7/28/98)
Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed) (uncommon; streamside and damp thicket) (Fl. 7/28/98)
Veronica officinalis (common speedwell) (uncommon; trailside and forest) (Fl. 6/05/99, 6/9/98)
Vinca minor (common periwinkle) (occasional; roadside)
Viola conspersa (dog violet) (uncommon; forest)
Viola cucullata (marsh violet) (uncommon; marsh) (Fl. 6/09/98)
Viola palmata (early blue violet) (uncommon; forest)
Viola pubescens (yellow forest violet) (uncommon; forest)
Viola rostrata (long-spurred violet) (uncommon; forest) (Fl. 5/14/99)
Viola sororia (common blue violet) (common; forest) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Waldsteinia fragarioides (barren strawberry) (common; forest) (Fl. 5/14/99)
Zizia aurea (golden Alexanders) (uncommon; damp thicket and forest)

Sedges and Rushes:
Carex amphibola (narrow-leaved sedge) (uncommon; forest)
Carex blanda (woodland sedge) (common; forest)
Carex complanata (flattened sedge) (uncommon; forest)
Carex davisii (Davis' sedge) (uncommon; trailside and forest)
Carex flava (yellow sedge) (common; marl fen)
Carex gracillima (graceful sedge) (uncommon; forest)
Carex granularis (meadow sedge) (common; damp field and marl fen)
Carex hitchcockiana (Hitchcock's sedge) (occasional; forest)
Carex hystericina (porcupine sedge) (common; lake edge and marl fen)
Carex lacustris (lake-bank sedge) (common; marsh)
Carex lasiocarpa (slender sedge) (uncommon; sinkhole pond)
Carex leptalea (bristle-stalked sedge) (occasional; damp field)
Carex lurida (sallow sedge) (occasional; streamside and lake edge)
Carex normalis (large straw sedge) (occasional; damp field)
Carex pallescens (pale sedge) (occasional; marl fen)
Carex radiata (stellate sedge) (uncommon; damp thicket)
Carex rosea (rose sedge) (uncommon; forest)
Carex scoparia (pointed broom sedge) (uncommon; streamside)
Carex sparganioides (bur-reed sedge) (uncommon; forest)
Carex sterilis (sterile sedge) (uncommon; marl fen)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge) (common; streamside and damp field)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge) (uncommon; marsh and streamside)
Carex swanii (Swan's sedge) (uncommon; forest)
Carex viridula (green sedge) (uncommon; marl fen)
Carex vulpinoidea (fox sedge) (common; lake edge, streamside, and damp field)
Cladium mariscoides (twig-rush) (common; marl fen)
Cyperus bipartitus (shining cyperus) (common; lake edge and damp field)
Cyperus strigosus (straw-colored cyperus) (occasional; damp field)
Eleocharis palustris (marsh spike-rush) (common; lake edge and marl fen)
Eleocharis pauciflora (few-flowered spike-rush) (uncommon; lake edge and marl fen)
Eleocharis rostellata (beaked spike-rush) (abundant; marl fen)
Eleocharis tenuis (slender spike-rush) (uncommon; lake edge)
Juncus brachycephalus (small-headed rush) (uncommon; damp field and marl fen)
Juncus nodosus (knotted rush) (occasional; damp field)
Juncus tenuis (path rush) (common; trailside and damp field)
Luzula multiflora (many-flowered wood-rush) (uncommon; forest)
Rhynchospora alba (white beaked-rush) (uncommon; marl fen)
Rhynchospora capillacea (hair-like beaked-rush) (common; marl fen and damp field)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush) (abundant; marl fen, sinkhole pond, and lake edge)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush) (uncommon; lake edge and damp field)
Scirpus pendulus (reddish bulrush) (occasional; damp field)
Scirpus pungens (common three-square) (common; marl fen and lake edge)
Scirpus validus (softstem bulrush) (common; lake edge)
Scirpus verecundus (few-flowered bulrush) (uncommon; forest)
Scleria verticillata (whorled nut-rush) (common; marl fen and damp field)

Agrostis gigantea (red-top) (common; dry field)
Agrostis hyemalis (ticklegrass) (uncommon; trailside and dry field)
Alopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail) (occasional; dry field)
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass) (common, dry field) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Bromus inermis (Hungarian brome) (uncommon; dry field and roadside) (near Fl. 6/05/99)
Bromus pubescens (hairy brome) (occasional; forest)
Cinna arundinacea (common wood-reed) (uncommon; forest)
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass) (common; dry field) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass) (uncommon; dry field and roadside)
Eleusine indica (goose grass) (uncommon; trailside and roadside)
Elymus hystrix (bottle-brush grass) (occasional; forest)
Elymus riparius (riverbank wild rye) (occasional; streamside)
Elytrigia repens (quack grass) (uncommon; dry field and roadside)
Eragrostis frankii (Frank's love grass) (uncommon; dry field)
Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue) (near Fl. 6/05/99)
Festuca subverticillata (nodding fescue) (uncommon; forest)
Glyceria septentrionalis (floating manna-grass) (uncommon; intermittent pond)
Glyceria striata (fowl manna-grass) (uncommon; intermittent pond and lakeside)
Holcus lanatus (velvet grass) (uncommon; dry field)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut-grass) (common; lake edge and marsh)
Leersia virginica (white grass) (common; lake edge and& marsh)
Lolium perenne (perennial rye-grass) (uncommon; dry field and roadside (near Fl. 6/05/99)
Microstegium vimineum (stilt-grass) (common; forest)
Muhlenbergia glomerata (eastern smoke-grass) (occasional; marl fen)
Muhlenbergia mexicana (wirestem muhlenbergia) (occasional; forest)
Muhlenbergia schreberi (nimble-will) (common; trailside and forest)
Muhlenbergia sobolifera (rock dropseed) (occasional; forest)
Oryzopsis asperifolia (rough-leaved ricegrass) (occasional; forest)
Oryzopsis racemosa (black-fruited ricegrass) (uncommon; forest)
Panicum boscii (Bosc's panic-grass) (uncommon; forest)
Panicum capillare (witch-grass) (uncommon; dry field)
Panicum dichotomiflorum (spreading panic-grass) (uncommon; damp field and roadside)
Panicum flexile (wiry panic-grass) (uncommon; marl fen and damp field)
Panicum rigidulum (Agrostis-like panic-grass) (common; damp field)
Paspalum laeve (field paspalum) (common; dry field)
Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) (common; streamside and marsh) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Phleum pratense (timothy) (common; dry field)
Phragmites australis (common reed) (common; lake edge)
Poa annua (annual bluegrass) (common; trailside)
Poa compressa (Canada bluegrass) (common; trailside and forest)
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass) (common; trailside and dry field) (Fl. 6/05/99)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem) (uncommon; dry field)
Setaria faberi (nodding foxtail) (uncommon; roadside)
Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail) (uncommon; roadside and dry field)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass) (occasional; dry field)
Tridens flavus (purpletop) (uncommon; dry field)

Ferns and Fern Allies:
Equisetum arvense (field horsetail) (uncommon; forest and damp field)
Equisetum fluviatile (water horsetail) (occasional; lake edge)
Lycopodium digitatum (southern ground cedar) (occasional; forest)
Lycopodium lucidulum (shining clubmoss) (occasional; forest)
Adiantum pedatum (maidenhair fern) (common; forest)
Asplenium x ebenoides (Scott's spleenwort) (occasional; limestone ledge)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort) (common; limestone ledge and forest)
Asplenium rhizophyllum (walking fern) (uncommon; limestone ledge)
Asplenium ruta-muraria (wall-rue) (occasional; limestone ledge)
Asplenium trichomanes (maidenhair spleenwort) (common; limestone ledge)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern) (common; forest)
Botrychium dissectum (cut-leaved grape fern) (occasional; forest)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern) (common; forest)
Cystopteris bulbifera (bulblet fern) (uncommon; limestone ledge)
Cystopteris fragilis var. mackayi (fragile fern) (uncommon; limestone ledge)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern) (common; forest)
Dryopteris carthusiana (spinulose wood fern) (common; forest)
Dryopteris cristata (crested wood fern) (uncommon; marsh)
Dryopteris intermedia (evergreen wood fern) (common; forest)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal wood fern) (common; forest)
Dryopteris x boottii (Boott's wood fern) (occasional; marsh)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern) (common; marsh and streamside)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern) (common; marsh and streamside)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern) (uncommon; forest)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern) (uncommon; marsh and streamside)
Pellaea atropurpurea (purple cliff-brake) (occasional; limestone ledge)
Polypodium virginianum (common polypody) (common; limestone ledge)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern) (abundant; forest)
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) (uncommon; forest)
Selaginella apoda (meadow spikemoss) (occasional; marl fen and damp field)
Thelypteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern) (occasional; forest)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern) (abundant; forest)
Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern) (common; marsh, streamside, and marl fen)
Woodsia obtusa (blunt-lobed woodsia) (uncommon; limestone ledge)

Aug 16 1953 White Pond. Marksboro, NJ.

The trip to the white marl pond in the vicinity of Squires Corner proved to be one of the most productive and interesting of the Club's field expeditions this year. Britton's Catalogue (1889) mentions many limestone species present at White Pond in 1884, according to Porter. Every species mentioned in the Catalogue that might be expected to be in flower at this season was observed by the group. Among the limestone species noted were the following: Cystopteris bulbifera, Pellaea atropurpurea, Asplenium ebenoides, A ruta-muraria, Carex flava, C cryptolepis, Rhynchospora capillacea, Salix candida, S. serissima, Waldsteinia fragarioides, and Lobelia kalmii. Other species included Phlox subulata, Sarracenia purpurea, Zanthoxylum americanum, Ipomoea pandurata, and Potentilla fruticosa. A species of Eleocharis rooting after the manner of Eleocharis rostellata but too far past the fruiting stage to identify awaits recognition on a trip which is planned for next season.

Attendance 8. Leaders, G G Nearing and L E Hand. Reported by David Fables.

June 19, 1954 Marksboro, NJ

The trip covered limestone country. Among the plants observed were the uncommon Carex flava, the ever beautiful queen lady slipper (Cypripedium reginae), the yellow oak (Quercus muhlenbergii), Impatiens pallida (pale jewelweed), and Viburnum rafinesquianum.

Leader, David Fables.