Burlington County, NJ

Acreage: 32,012 acres


Rt 70 to Rt 72 east at circle, make left onto Buzzard Hill Rd 3 mi. from circle, first left onto Shinns Rd, which is southwestern boundary of natural area.


1851 -- the Lebanon Glass Works established.

1867 -- after depleting the supply of wood for charcoal, the furnace shut down and was abandoned.

1908 -- the state begins acquisition of the land.

1930s -- tree plantings by the Civilian Conservation Corp

The Lebanon or Glass House

The blinding white soil is shallow phase. It is a forgotten glass-making village of Burlington County. Later it was the site of a CCC camp. The town was named for a cluster of cedar. It was located near the eastern boundary of the county in Woodland Township.

They hauled the glass to Lumberton by cart via Brown's Mills.

1861 -- the Lebanon plant was buzzing with activity Prior to this date there were 20 houses with 200 people employed as woodmen, teamsters, sand diggers and glass blowers.

Its heyday was over by 1870.

Now the Lebanon State Forest surrounds the old glass making town.

Beck, Henry Charlton. 1936. 1983 edition. Forgotten Towns of Southern New Jersey. .New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.


Pineland white cedar swamp and pine-oak forest communities, and rare species habitat.

There are several places that cedar bogs are accessible from the roadside. There is a road crossing Shinns Branch that passes through a cedar bog as does the road that crosses MacDonalds Branch.


Acer rubrum (red maple)
Amelanchier sp. (shadbush)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (white cedar)
Crataegus sp. (hawthorn)
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
Magnolia virginiana (sweet bay magnolia)
Pinus rigida (pitch pine)
Quercus marilandica (blackjack oak)
Quercus prinoides (dwarf chestnut oak)
Quercus stellata (post oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bear berry)
Arenaria caroliniana (pine barren sandwort)
Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry)
Chamaedaphne calyculata (leatherleaf)
Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Drosera filiformis (thread-leaved sundew)
Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Eubotrys racemosa (fetterbush)
Gaultheria procumbens (teaberry)
Gaylussacia spp. (huckleberry)
Hudsonia ericoides (golden heather)
Ilex glabra (inkberry holly)
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Lyonia mariana (stagger bush)
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry)
Myrica pensylvanica (bayberry)
Opuntia humifusa (prickly pear cactus)
Quercus ilicifolia (bear oak)
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
Rosa spp. (roses)
Rubus spp. (blackberry)
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)
Vaccinium spp. (blueberries)

Stylisma pickeringii (Pickering morning glory)
Smilax spp. (greenbrier)

Achillea millefolium (yarrow)
Agalinis sp. (gerardia)
Apocynum medium (dogbane)
Arenaria caroliniana (pine barren sandwort)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Aster nemoralis (bog aster)
Aster spp. (white asters)
Baptisia tinctoria (wild indigo)
Calopogon pulchellus (grass pink)
Chamaecrista fasciculata (partridge pea)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy)
Cichorium intybus (chicory)
Cypripedium acaule (pink lady' slipper)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace)
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink)
Drosera intermedia (spatulate leaved sundew)
Drosera rotundifolia (round leaved sundew)
Eriocaulon spp. (pipewort)
Eupatorium spp. (boneset)
Fragaria virginiana (strawberry)
Gentiana autumnalis (pine barren gentian)
Habenaria blephariglottis (white fringed orchid)
Helianthus divaricatus (woodland sunflower)
Hemerocallis fulva (day lily)
Hieracium spp. (hawkweed)
Hypericum canadense (Canada St. Johnswort)
Hypericum denticulatum (coppery St. Johnswort)
Leiophyllum buxifolium (sand myrtle)
Liatris graminifolia (blazing star)
Krigia virginica (dwarf dandelion)
Lachnanthes tinctoria (redroot)
Lactuca (lettuces)
Lechea sp. (hairy pinweed)
Lilium superbum (Turk's cap lily)
Linaria canadensis (blue toadflax)
Lobelia spp. (lobelia)
Lophiola americana (golden crest)
Lysimachia terrestris (yellow loosestrife)
Melampyrum lineare (cow wheat)
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe)
Narthecium americanum (bog asphodel)
Nuphar advena (spatterdock)
Nymphaea odorata (fragrant white water lily)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Orontium aquaticum (golden club)
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)
Pogonia ophioglossoides (rose pogonia)
Polygala brevifolia (short-leaved milkwort)
Polygala lutea (orange milkwort)
Potentilla sp. (cinquefoil)
Pyxidanthera barbulata (pixie moss)
Rhexia virginiana (Virginia meadow beauty)
Rudbeckia hirta var pulcherrima (black-eyed Susan)
Sagittaria sp. (arrowhead)
Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet)
Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant)
Sisyrinchium spp. (blue-eyed grass)
Solidago fistulosa (pine barren goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod)
Solidago spp. (goldenrod)
Tephrosia virginiana (goats rue)
Triadenum (marsh St. Johnswort)
Trientalis borealis (star flower)
Trifolium arvense (rabbit's foot clover)
Utricularia spp. (bladderworts)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)
Viola spp (violets)
Xerophyllum asphodeloides (turkey beard)
Xyris (yellow eyed grass)

Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)

June 17, 1951

The climbing fern was seen along the Rancocas Creek at New Lisbon. A lowland area just within the State Forest produced characteristic plants such as sweet pepperbush, highbush blueberry, dangleberry, sheep laurel, swamp azalea, turkey beard, pitcher plant, pyxie, and sundew.

A dry area was visited for Hudsonia, sand myrtle, pine barrens chickweed, dwarf chestnut oak, low bush blueberries, and spurge, as well as the expected oaks and pines. After viewing several plots in the prescribed burned area, we listened to an explanation of procedure and results by Dr. Little. A study of the effect upon ground plants and shrubs was described by Dr. Buell The group then visited a cedar swamp. Curley grass fern, Arethusa, and Helonias were the most unusual plants seen . Bladderwort and other insectivorous plants were abundant.

Attendance 30. Leaders: Murray Buell, Silas Little, and John Small.

Lebanon State Forest
October 26 1953

The group assembled at Deep Hollow Pond for lunch while listening to a talk by Dr. Murray Buell, Rutgers University, on the possible ecological implications of prescribed burning and the plants of the Pine Region Hydrological Research Project. The trip included visits to the control-burn plots in the Forest where an interesting discussion developed regarding the effect of fire on soils, plants, and animals.

Later, Mr. Henry C. Barksdale explained the U. S. Geological Survey's part in the program and took the group to the newly erected stream-gaging station. The two experimental watersheds were visited and the methods of study outlined. In addition to the agencies above, this project and its fellowship has the interest and support of the local laboratory of the U.S. Forest Service and the Southern New Jersey Development Council.

Attendance 51. Leader, Jack McCormick.

Sponsor: Torrey Botanical Club

Date: April 27, 1968

Leader: Louis E. Hand

At the headquarters of Lebanon State Forest, the 1930 plantings of loblolly pine (now up to 70' high and 17" d.b.h.) were examined. Shortleaf pine and pitch pine were noted for species differences. Also planted in the 1930's were Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) and Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila), the latter being in fruit at the time of our visit. A colony of the diminutive grass, Aira praecox, ca. 5 cm high, found at the above location was new to most of the group. Proceeding into the forest, the former site of the old town of Lebanon (for which the forest was named) and a glassworks enterprise of 1851 to 1866, were noted. Here on display were three large trunks of southern white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides), the largest being 32" d.b.h. These are relics of the original forest which contained trees of 6' or more in diameter and had ring counts of 1100 years. A nice stand of the bicolored birdfoot violet (Viola pedata lineariloba) was in flower here. At McDonald's Branch, Smilax laurifolia and Schizaea pusilla were shown to those unfamiliar with these species.

At Woodmansee and Bullock, excellent floral displays of Pyxidanthera, Epigaea, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Leiophyllum, and Carex tonsa were seen. Recovery from New Jersey's most disastrous forest fire on record -- that of April 20-21, 1963,-- was noted here.

After lunch the Mt. Misery Conference Center grounds were visited and here the partly developed leaves of Quercus marilandica and Q. ilicifolia were compared. Some mosses and lichens were noted and the old plants of Lycopodium alopecuroides were examined. Viola primulifolia was found in flower.

A drive of several miles took us to the extreme western portion of Lebanon State Forest and the 1933 white pine planting. The trees have grown surprisingly well in the soils of this region, reaching a height of 60'-65' and a d.b.h. of 14 inches. No seedlings were noticed and this was to be expected in the dry sandy habitat. One serious disadvantage of this species is the vulnerability of its thin bark to forest fire. This planting has been kept free of forest fire to date. A short distance from this station and near Ongs Hat is a swampy woods which was visited to see Helonias bullata in flower and the unusual stand of yellow birch (Betula lutea or B. alleghaniensis), here only 70' above sea level. A brief stop at New Lisbon for a large colony of climbing fern (Lygodium palmatum) completed the trip. Attendance was 39.


Pakim Pond (Lebanon State Forest) Circular Routes

An infinite number of routes over the many sand roads can be used for an interesting day's walk north from Pakim Pond. Go northeast past the former glass works site and head for the area near or north of the Penn Central R.R. tracks. Here the bogs of cedar trees are at their best. Return via one of the many alternate roads; the entire trip is about 10 miles.

In Lebanon Forest pitch pine dominates the forest bordering Cooper Road that runs from Pakim Pond to the "200 Area" and on the roads going north from here, such as Glass Works Road.

Xyris sp. (yellow-eyed grass) 7/16/93