The Bronx River arises in North Castle and travels to Soundview in the East River. It travels over limestone rock. Thirty million years ago it hit a fault and traveled down through the tough manhattan schist area. It used to go down Webster Avenue and where the railroad tracks are now.

Five-mile path from the Kensico Dam in Valhalla, south to Greenacres Avenue in Hartsdale.

3.6-mile section from Harney Road in Eastchester to Palmer Road in Bronxville.

There are many stops along this parkway to investigate.

Dr. Edward Frankel has done the most work here. I have not put his plant list into the database as of yet.

History of the Parkway and the stops along it:

Kensico Dam -- see Cranberry Lake

Washington's Headquarters (Virginia Road):

Washington's Headquarters, in North White Plains, stands on ground that was originally part of a tract of 600 acres acquired by the Miller family during Colonial times.  The house itself was built about 1738.  In 1770 an addition was built on the west end, giving it its present style and appearance.  

Three times during the course of the stormy Revolution the house served as Washington's Headquarters: during the Battle of White Plains in 1776, in the summer of 1778 and again in 1781.  Hostess to Washington during his stay was Elijah Miller's widow, Anne, who gave him use of two rooms.  

The uneven floor in the bedroom is caused by the roots of an ancient tree at the corner of the house which has raised the floor about four inches.  The sycamore, reputed to be over 200 years old, would have shaded the corner of the house when General Washington occupied the little bedroom.  

The building and land were acquired in 1917 by the Westchester County Board of Supervisors, and opened to the public on October 28, 1918.  

Fifth Action, Battle of White Plains (November 1, 1776):

Just northeast of and above the Miller House is Miller Hill. American troops, under Glover, fortified the hill during the Fifth Action of the Battle of White Plains. Southwest of Miller Hill is Travis Hill where the British set up their field pieces and fired on Miller Hill. Glover had a brass 3, 6 and 24 pounder, and three iron 12 pounders. When he returned fire, the British (according to General Heath), "made off with their field pieces as fast as their horses could draw them. A shot from the American cannon, at this place, took off the head of a Hessian artillery man." Round five was won by the Americans. (Source: a pamphlet by Arthur A. Merrill, The Battle of White Plains, 1976; copyright by Merrill.)

Cross County Center

Chatterton Hill:

The American arrived in White Plains October 21, 1776. On October 28, the British started toward White Plains. Their left column was predominantly Hessian and under Lt. General de Heister. It took the Mamaroneck Road toward the Post Road (Route 22) where they planned to turn north. The right column was under Lt. General Henry Clinton and it marched up Secor Road to the Old Mamaroneck Road.

The Americans fortified Chatterton Hill overlooking the present Bronx River Parkway shortly south of the County Center in White Plains. (At the foot of Chatterton Hill, there is a memorial plaque on the parkway at a small pull-off heading south.) East of Chatterton Hill, on Route 22, the Americans approaching from the north met the Hessians approaching fron the south. The Americans retired to Chatterton Hill, pursued by the Hessians.

The Americans on Chatterton Hill poured such a volley into the Hessian troops that they retreated down the hill in disorder. Hessian Colonel Rall then occupied a smaller hill to the southwest of Chatterton Hill.

During the Second Action of the Battle of White Plains (October 28, 1776), the Americans were stationed at the foot of Chatterton Hill just west of the Bronx River. The British attacked the Americans here forcing them to retreat down Battle Avenue, across a bridge over the river, and up to Washington's right flank on Purdy Hill. (Today Washington's headquarters along what was then Dobbs Ferry Road has been moved to this hill.) For further information, see Silver Lake. (Source: a pamphlet by Arthur A. Merrill, The Battle of White Plains, 1976; copyright by Merrill.)

Butler Woods





New York Botanical Garden

Snuff Mill 1792-1870 produced snuff here.

Bronx Zoo


The course of the Bronx River follows a narrow band of weak Inwood marble. This is true of most of the rivers in the Manhattan Prong. The river follows the southwesterly trend of the marble. A fault just above the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx forced the river out of its normal course and through the hard Manhattan Schist of the gardens. The river empties into the East River at the apex of Long Island Sound. (Source: Van Diver 1985)


April 21, 1990

leaders: Robert Bernstein and Bill Greiner

This trip visited the flood plain of the Bronx River, between Crestwood and Scarsdale, on a perfect spring day. About 100 species of plants were noted, among them

wake-robin (Trillium erectum)

wild Leek (Allium tricoccum)

Virginia waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum)

cuckoo flower (Cardamine pratensis)

early meadow rue (Thalictrum dioicum)

tall meadow rue (T. polygamum)

bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)

false mermaid (Floerkea proserpinacoides)

blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

yellow iris (Iris pseudacorus)

yellowroot (Xanthorhiza simplicissma)

ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris)


Date: May 15, 1980?

Leader: Edward Frankel

The bonny banks of the Bronx River continue to be a botanical attraction judging by the relatively large number of floral fans who met at the tennis courts just north of Exit 15(N) on the Bronx River Parkway on a perfect May morning. As in previous years, we meandered north through the woods along the east bank smelling, tasting, touching and admiring a sample of the almost one thousand species of vascular plants growing along its wooded ridges and rich loamy floodplains. This year special attention was given to basic botanical groups and their varied methods of propagation. The distinction between monocots and dicots was demonstrated by comparing the venation of sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida). Differences between woody and herbaceous plants were seen by comparing a magnificent 50 foot specimen of the tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and the lowly, pestiferous common plantain (Plantago major). Perennial and annual plants were differentiated by comparing the fleshy rhizome of the common blue violet (Viola papilionacea) and the finely divided fibrous roots of speargrass (Poa annua). The rapid spread of introduced species such as Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) and oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) was in evidence. It was suggested that one way to control the knotweed is to pick the young shoots and eat them; they are excellent boiled or steamed. The bittersweet which is a strangling woody vine with axillary clusters of bright orange and red fruits can be picked in the fall; they make very attractive indoor decorations. The twining spiny vines of the Japanese hops do not seem to be eatable or pickable and so enjoy a freedom to grow and spread, which they are exercising enthusiastically and without restraint.

A few species of ferns were seen. Muddy, shaded spots were inhabited by the interrupted fern (Osmunda claytoniana) and cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea)

sunny places taken by the marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris)

moist woods were crowded with the lady fern (Athyrium felix- femina), including the red stemmed variety and the New York fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis)

sunny spots were occupied by the hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula) and the sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis);

rocky shaded slopes displayed the Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides) and the marginal shield fern (Dryopteris marginalis), both evergreen species.

One or two specimens of the ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) were also found, stragglers from a virtual forest of these ferns growing about a mile down the river.

It was a very enjoyable excursion into the "wilds of Westchester" explored by about two dozen botanical buffs.


Sponsor: Torrey Botanical Club

Leader: Ed Frankel

Date: May 23, 1981

Exploration of Spring Flora Along the Bronx River, Leewood Drive, exit 9 on the Bronx River Parkway

A perfect May day and a dazzling display of spring flora brought out two dozen flower fanciers. This goodly group gathered at Leewood Drive, exit 9, on the Bronx River Parkway and followed the east bank of the river to the first bridge, returning along the west bank to the starting point. In this short distance, a sample of the 900 species of vascular plants inhabiting the green belt flanking the Bronx River was seen. In addition to identifying over 40 species, the lore and legends surrounding several weedy plants were presented. These include

yarrow or devil's play thing (Achillea millefolium)

mugwort or felon herb (Artemisia vulgaris)

shepherd's purse or mother's heart (Capsella bursa-pastoris)

daisy or maudlinwort (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum)

flowering dogwood (Cornus florida)

ground ivy or alehoof (Glechoma hederacea)

star of Bethlehem (Ornithogalum umbellatum)

plantain or Cuckoo bread (Plantago major)

common groundsel or ground glitton (Senecio vulgaris)

bittersweet or poison berry (Solanum dulcamara)

dandelion or priest's corwn (Taraxacum officinale)

Several late spring bloomers were "busting out all over"

Virginia waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum)

celadine (Chelidonium majus)

cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum)

giant Solomon's seal (Polygonatum canaliculatum)

wood nettle (Laportea canadensis)

Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense)

cut-leaf toothwort (Dentaria laciniata)

penny cress (Thlapsi arvense)

slender speedwell (Veronica filiformis)

The usual spring grasses, rushes and sedges covered the ground

sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum)

orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata)

Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis)

spear grass (Poa annua)

wood rush (Luzula campestris)

path rush (Juncus tenuis)

several sedges

Carex pensylvanica

Carex rosea

Carex laxiflora

Carex tribuloides

A few ferns were proudly displayed:

cinnamon (Osmunda cinnamomea)

interrupted (Osmunda claytoniana)

sensitive (Onoclea sensibilis)

New York (Thelypteris noveboracensis)

lady (Athyrium filix-femina)

hay-scented (Dennstaedtia punctilobula)

bracken (Pteridium aquilinum)

Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides)

After a leisurely lunch, we visited the oldest inhabitant of the Bronx River Valley, a 600 year-old red oak (Quercus rubra v borealis) located on Underhill Street near the Astbury Church at the Scarsdale Road exit on the Bronx River Parkway. This ancient oak stands guard over a cemetary in which the oldest resident is a mere 200 years old. It stood at attention in 1776 when George Washington and his continental army marched under it on their way north to fight the British in the Battle of White Plains. Botanical history was also made on this spot; mouse-ear (Hieracium pilosella) was seen for the first time in the Bronx Valley, another species added to the growing list of the Bronx River flora.

The third stop was a field in Bronxville just south of Midland Avenue on the east side of the Bronx River Parkway through which the Bronx River meanders. This site is of special interest to conservationists and friends of the Bronx River since it is the home of the European bitterling, the only place it lives in all of North America. Plans of the Army Corps of Engineers to channelize this section of the river as a flood control measure have been postponed at present as "not being economically justified." And so the Bronx River Bitterling is saved as are almost a thousand species of flowering plants that live along the river's banks.

The open field, wet and forested areas were replete with several plants not previously observed:

colorful dame's rocket (Hesperis matronalis)

wild geranium (Geranium maculatum)

honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis)

black snakeroot (Sanicula marilandica)

sweet cicely (Osmorhiza longistylis but not O. claytoni)

tall oat grass (Arrhenatherum elatius)

Siebold viburnum (Viburnum sieboldii), an escape, with clusters of white showy flowers and a burned bacon odor when its young leaves are crushed

shingle oak (Quercus imbricaria) another migrant or transplant -- A grove of shingle oaks grows on the east side of the north entrance to the Parkway off Midland Avenue.

The field trip was a happy combination of the old and the new, of the past and the present, and a good time was had by all. Attendance was 28.

Butler and Garth Woods, Bronx River Parkway, Westchester County, NY, September 29, 1996

A notice of this mushroom walk appeared in a Polish newspaper with the result that six people associated with that east European nation eagerly came, besides many members of the Connecticut-Westchester Mycological Association, and, of course, members of the Torrey Botanical Society. We had gorgeous weather and our search for mushrooms yielded some interesting finds. Among them was a whole fallen log covered with the bright orange "chicken mushroom" (Laetiporus sulphureus). The group enthusiastically gathered them since they are a favorite edible mushroom.

Along the way we found at the base of several trees some mica caps (Caprinus micaceus) also good to eat when really fresh. If left to themselves the mushroom deliquesces into a black inky liquid. Here are the names of a few more: Cantharellus lateritius (smooth chanterelle), Clitocybe nuda (bluets), Daldinia concentrica (carbon balls), Trametes versicolor (turkey tail), Lactarius camphoratus (aromatic milky), Lycogala epidendrum (slime mold), and Collybia dryophila (oak loving).

Of great interest was an unusual find. In grass on a lawn on our way to Butler Woods, we found some puffballs. We brought them to Dr. Clark Rogerson, mycologist at the New York Botanical Garden. In the microscope, he determined they were Mycenastrum corium (tough puffball). Since this was the first time anyone had seen them, he decided to place them in the vast Fungi Herbarium at the N.Y.B.G. There is a picture and text in the valuable book Audubon Society Field Guide to the North American Mushrooms by the well-known Gary Lincoff.

Also Dr. Patrick Cooney prepared an impressive list of the botanical finds. Altogether it was an exciting day for the mushroom collectors. Attendance was 14. The leaders were Sylvia Stein and Dr. Roz Lowen.


Dr. Edward Frankel

Abies balsamea (balsam fir)
Acalypha ostryifolia (rough-pod copperleaf)
Acalypha rhomboidea (three-seeded mercury)
Acer campestre (field maple)
Acer negundo (box elder maple)
Acer nigrum (black maple)
Acer palmatum
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)
Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)
Acorus calamus (sweet flag)
Actaea alba (white baneberry)
Actaea rubra (red baneberry)
Aegopodium podagraria (gout weed)
Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)
Aethusa cynapium (fool's parsley)
Agalinis tenuifolia (common agalinis)
Agrimonia gryposepala (common agrimony)
Agrostis capillaris (Rhode Island bent grass)
Agrostis gigantea (red top bent grass)
Agrostis hyemalis (ticklegrass)
Agrostis perennans (autumn bent grass)
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)
Ajuga reptans (carpet bugleweed)
Albizia julibrissin (silk tree)
Alisma triviale (northern water plaintain)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)
Allium canadense (Canada onion)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Allium vineale (field garlic)
Alnus glutinosa (black alder)
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Alopecuris pratensis (meadow foxtail grass)
Amaranthus caudatus
Amaranthus hybridus
Amaranthus retroflexus (rough pigweed)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed)
Amelanchier arborea (downy shadbush)
Amelanchier canadensis (eastern shadbush)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo)
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelain berry)
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anchusa arvensis (small bugloss)
Andromeda japonica
Andropogon virginicus var. virginicus (Virginia broom beard grass)
Anemone quinquefolia (wood anemone)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed anemone)
Anemonella thalictroides (rue anemone)
Antennaria plantaginifolia (plantain-leaved pussytoes)
Anthemis arvensis (corn chamomile)
Anthemis cotula (dogfennel chamomile)
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass)
Anthriscus sylvestris (wild chervil)
Apios americana (groundnut)
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp dogbane)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Arabidopsis thaliana (mouse-ear cress)
Arabis canadensis (sickle pod mustard)
Arabis hirsuta (hairy rockcress)
Arabis laevigata (smooth rockcress)
Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsparilla)
Aralia racemosa (spikenard)
Aralia spinosa (hercules' club)
Arctium lappa (burdock)
Arcticum minus (common burdock)
Arenaria serpyllifolia (thyme-leaved sandwort)
Arisaema triphyllum (jack-in-pulpit)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Arrhenatherum elatius (tall oat grass)
Artemisia annua (annual wormwort)
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias purpurascens (purple milkweed)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterflyweed)
Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Aster acuminatus (sharp-leaved aster)
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster)
Aster dumosus (long-stalked aster)
Aster ericoides
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster lanceolatus (eastern lined or panicled aster)
Aster lowrieanus (Lowry's aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster novi-belgii (New York aster)
Aster paternus (toothed white-topped aster)
Aster puniceus (purple-stemmed aster)
Aster racemosus (small-headed aster)
Aster schreberi (Schreber's aster)
Aster umbellatus (tall flat-topped white aster)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Athyrium thelypteroides (silvery gladefern)
Aureolaria laevigata
Avena sativa (oats)
Baptisia tinctoria (yellow wild indigo)
Barbarea verna (spring wintercress)
Barbarea vulgaris (common wintercress)
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Bidens bipinnata (spanish needles)
Bidens cernua (nodding bur marigold)
Bidens comosa (strawstem beggar tick)
Bidens laevis (larger or showy bur marigold)
Bidens polylepis (Ozark beggar ticks)
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake grapefern)
Brachyelytrum erectum (long-awned wood grass)
Brassica nigra (black mustard)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)
Bromus ciliatus (fringed brome grass)
Bromus commutatus (hairy chess brome grass)
Bromus inermis (smooth brome grass)
Bromus japonicus (Japanese brome grass)
Bromus tectorum (downy chess brome grass)
Calamagrostis canadensis (blue joint grass)
Calla palustris (wild calla)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold)
Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed)
Campanula rapunculoides (rover bellflower)
Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)
Cardamine concatenata (cut-leaved toothwort)
Cardamine diphylla (broad-leaved toothwort)
Cardamine pratensis var pratensis (cuckoo flower)
Cardamine rhomboidea (spring cress)
Carduus nutans (nodding thistle)
Carex cephalophora (.head-bearing sack sedge)
Carex compressus
Carex crinita (long-haired sack sedge)
Carex cristatella (small-crested sack sedge)
Carex diandra (two-stamened sack sedge)
Carex erythrorhizos
Carex esculentus
Carex filiculmis
Carex laxiflora (loosely-flowered sack sedge)
Carex lupulina (hop sack sedge)
Carex lurida (sallow sack sedge)
Carex odoratus
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sack sedge)
Carex rosea (rose sack sedge)
Carex scoparia (broom-like sack sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sack sedge)
Carex tribuloides (tripulus sack sedge)
Carex vulpinoidea v. ambigua (fox-like sack sedge) the old C. annectans
Carex vulpinoidea v. vulpinoidea (fox-like sack sedge)
Carpinus caroliniana (musclewood)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)
Carya glabra (pignut hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Castanea dentata (American chestnut)
Catalpa bignonioides (southern catalpa)
Catalpa speciosa (northern catalpa)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Cedrus atlanticus (Atlas cedar)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asian bittersweet)
Celtis occidentalis (northern hackberry)
Centaurea dubia (short-fringed knapweed)
Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed)
Centaurea nigra (black knapweed)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed)
Cercis canadensis (redbud)
Chamaecrista nictitans (wild sensitive plant)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (atlantic white cedar)
Chelidonium majus (celandine)
Chelone glabra (white turtlehead)
Chenopodium album (pigweed goosefoot)
Chenopodium ambrosioides (Mexican tea goosefoot)
Chenopodium botrys (Jerusalem oak goosefoot)
Chenopodium simplex (maple-leaved goosefoot)
Chimaphila maculata (striped wintergreen)
Chimaphila umbellata (pipsissewa)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy)
Chrysanthemum parthenium (fever few daisy)
Cichorium intybus (chicory)
Cicuta maculata (common water hemlock)
Cimicifuga racemosa (bugbane)
Cinna arundinacea (wood reedgrass)
Cinna latifolia (drooping wood reedgrass)
Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade)
Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle)
Cirsium discolor (field thistle)
Cirsium pumilum (pasture thistle)
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle)
Cladrastis lutea
Claytonia virginica (spring beauty)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Cleome hassleriana
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Collinsonia canadensis (horsebalm)
Commelina communis (Asiatic dayflower)
Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley)
Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed)
Conyza canadensis (horseweed)
Cornus amomum (swamp or silky dogwood)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Cornus kousa (kousa dogwood)
Cornus mas (cornelian cherry dogwood)
Cornus sericea (red-osier dogwood)
Coronilla varia (crown vetch)
Coronopus didymus (swine cress)
Corylus americana (American hazel-nut)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazel-nut)
Cotinus coggygria
Cotinus obovatus
Crataegus crus-galli
Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort)
Cuscuta gronovii (common dodder)
Cymbalaria muralis (Kenilworth ivy)
Cyperus diandrus (two-stemmed nutsedge)
Dactylis glomeratus (orchard grass)
Danthonia compressa
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Datura stramonium (jimson weed)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Deschampsia flexuosa (hairgrass)
Descurainia pinnata (tansy mustard)
Descurainia sophia?
Desmodium canadense (showy tick trefoil)
Desmodium glutinosum (pointed-leaved tick trefoil)
Desmodium nudiflorum (naked-flowered tick trefoil)
Desmodium paniculatum (panicled tick trefoil)
Desmodium rotundifolium (round-leaved tick trefoil)
Dianthus armeria (deptford pink)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
Digitaria filiformis (crabgrass)
Digitaria ischaemum (smooth crabgrass)
Digitaria sanguinalis (hairy crabgrass)
Dioscorea villosa (wild yamroot)
Dipsacus sylvestris (teasel)
Draba verna (whitlow grass)
Draba reptans
Dryopteris carthusiana (toothed woodfern)
Dryopteris cristata (crested woodfern)
Dryopteris goldiana (goldies woodfern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal woodfern)
Duchesnea indica (Indian strawberry)
Hypochaeris radicata (cat's foot)
Echinochloa crusgalli (barnyard grass)
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber)
Echium vulgare (viper's bugloss)
Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive)
Eleocharis tenuis (slender spike rush)
Eleocharis palustris (marsh spike rush)
Eleusine indica (goose grass)
Elodea canadensis (common waterweed)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye grass)
Elymus hystrix (bottle-brush grass)
Elymus riparius (streambank wild rye grass)
Elymus trachycaulus (slender wheat wild rye grass)
Elymus virginicus (wild rye grass)
Elytrigia repens (quack grass) old Agropyron repens
Epilobium angustifolium (narrow-leaved willow herb)
Epilobium coloratum (purple-leaved willow herb)
Epilobium glandulosum (northern willow herb)
Epilobium hirsutum (hairy willowherb)
Epipactis helleborine (helleborine orchid)
Equisetum arvense (field horsetail)
Eragrostis capillaris (lace love grass)
Eragrostis cilianensis (stink love grass)
Eragrostis pectinacea (Carolina love grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass)
Erechtites hieraciifolia (pileweed)
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane)
Erigeron philadelphicus (common fleabane)
Erigeron strigosus (lesser daisy fleabane)
Erodium cicutarium (storksbill or red-stem filaree)
Erythronium americanum (trout lily)
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus)
Eupatorium coelestinum
Euonymus fortunei
Eupatorium album (white boneset)
Eupatorium dubium (eastern joe pye weed)
Eupatorium fistulosum (trumpetweed joe pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted joe pye weed)
Eupatorium rugosum (white snake root)
Eupatorium sessilifolium (upland boneset)
Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge)
Euphorbia maculata (spotted spurge)
Euphorbia vermiculata (spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Euthamia tenuifolia (slender-leaved goldenrod)
Epifagus virginiana (beechdrops)
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
Fagus sylvestirs (copper beech)
Festuca elatior (tall fescue grass)
Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue)
Festuca rubra (red fescue grass) .
Floerkea proserpinacoides (false mermaid)
Forsythia intermedia
Forsythia suspensa
Fragaria vesca (wood strawberry)
Fragaria virginiana (common strawberry)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus nigra (black ash)
Fraxinus quadrangulata
Fraxinus pensylvanica (red ash)
Fumaria officinalis (fumitory)
Galanthus nivalis
Galeopsis tetrahit (hemp nettle)
Galinsoga parviflora (lesser quickweed)
Galinsoga quadriradiata (common quickweed)
Galium aparine (cleavers)
Galium asprellum (rough bedstraw)
Galium circaezens (wild licorice)
Galium mollugo (wild madder)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gaultheria procumbens (teaberry)
Geranium bicknellii (Bicknell's geranium)
Geranium carolinianum (Carolina geranium)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium)
Geranium robertianum (herb robert geranium)
Geum canadense (white avens)
Geum virginianum (cream-colored avens)
Gingko biloba
Glechoma hederacea (gill over the ground)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Glyceria striata (meadow manna-grass)
Gnaphalium obtusifolium (sweet everlasting or fragrant cudweed)
Gratiola aurea (yellow hedge hyssop) /Gratioleae
Gratiola neglecta (clammy hedge hyssop) /Gratioleae
Halesia tetraptera
Hamamelis virginiana (witch-hazel)
Hedera helix (English ivy)
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower)
Helianthus decapetalus (thin-leaved sunflower)
Helianthus divaricatus (woodland sunflower)
Helianthus giganteus (tall or giant sunflower)
Helleborus viridis (green hellebore)
Hepatica americana (round-lobed hepatica)
Heracleum lanatum (cow parsnip)
Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket)
Hibiscus syriacus (rose of sharon mallow)
Hieracium aurantiacum (orange hawkweed)
Hieracium caespitosum (field hawkweed)
Hieracium floribundum (pale hawkweed)
Hieracium kalmii (Canada hawkweed)
Hieracium paniculatum (panicled hawkweed)
Hieracium scabrum (rough hawkweed)
Holcus lanatus (velvet grass)
Hordeum jubatum (squirrel-tail grass or foxtail barley grass)
Humulus japonicus (Japanese hops)
Humulus lupulus (common hops)
Hydrangea petiolaris
Hydrocotyle americana (marsh pennywort)
Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia water leaf)
Hypericum perforatum (common st. johnswort)
Hypericum punctatum (spotted st. johnswort)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow stargrass)
Ilex opaca (American holly)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry holly)
Impatiens capensis (jewelweed)
Impatiens pallida (pale jewelweed)
Ipomoea purpurea (common morning glory)
Iris pseudacorus (yellow flag iris)
Iris versicolor (blue flag iris)
Juglans cinerea (butternut walnut)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Juncus canadensis (Canada rush)
Juncus compressus (flattened rush)
Juncus effusus (soft rush)
Juncus tenuis (path rush)
Juniperus communis (juniper)
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Kerria japonica
Koelreuteria paniculata
Krigia biflora (two-flowered cynthia)

Lactuca biennis (tall blue lettuce)
Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce)
Lactuca floridana (woodland lettuce)
Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce)
Lamium amplexicaule (henbit dead nettle)
Lamium purpureum (purple dead nettle)
Laportea canadensis (wood nettle)
Lapsana communis (nipplewort)
Larix laricina (larch)
Lathyrus palustris (marsh pea)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cutgrass)
Leersia virginica (white grass)
Leontodon autumnalis (fall dandelion)
Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort)
Lepidium campestre (field peppergrass)
Lepidium virginicum (poor man's pepper)
Lespedeza hirta
Lespedeza intermedia (wand bush clover)
Lespedeza procumbens (trailing bush clover)
Lespedeza virginica (Virginia bush clover)
Ligustrum ovalifolium (oval-leaved privet)
Ligustrum vulgare (common privet)
Lilium canadense (Canada lily)
Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily)
Linaria vulgaris (butter-and-eggs)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco lobelia)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lolium perenne (perennial rye)
Lonicera canadensis (fly honeysuckle)
Lonicera fragmentissima
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Lonicera maackii (honeysuckle)
Lonicera tartarica (tartar's honeysuckle)
Ludwigia alternifolia (seed box water purslane)
Ludwigia palustris (common water purslane)
Lunaria rediviva (perrenial honesty)
Luzula campestris (field wood rush)
Lycopodium digitatum (southern ground cedar)
Lycopodium obscurum (ground pine or tree club moss)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort loosestrife)
Lysimachia quadriflora (smooth loosestrife)
Lythrum alatum (winged loosestrife)
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)
Maclura pomifera (osage orange)
Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay magnolia)
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)
Malva moschata (musk mallow)
Malva neglecta (common mallow)
Matricaria matricarioides (pineapple weed chamomile)
Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern)
Mazus pumilus (mazus)
Medeola virginiana (Indian cucumber root)
Medicago sativa subsp. sativa (alfalfa)
Medicago lupulina (black medick)
Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (yellow alfalfa)
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover)
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)
Menispermum canadense (Canada moonseed)
Mentha arvensis (wild mint)
Mentha spicata (spearmint)
Mertensia virginica (Virginia bluebells)
Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass)
Mikania scandens (climbing hempweed)
Mimulus alatus (winged monkey flower)
Mimulus ringens (monkey flower)
Mirabilis jalapa
Mirabilis nyctaginea (heart-leaved umbrellawort)
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry)
Mollugo verticillata (carpetweed)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot)
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe)
Morus alba (white mulberry) Moraceae
Morus rubra (red mulberry) Moraceae
Muhlenbergia frondosa (leafy muhly grass)
Muhlenbergia schreberi (nimblewill muhly grass)
Muscari botryoides (grape hyacinth)
Myosotis arvensis?
Myosotis micrantha (blue forget me not)
Myosotis scorpioides (forget-me-not)
Myrica pensylvanica (northern bayberry)
Nepeta cataria (catnip)
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Ornithogallum umbellatum (umbelled star of Bethlehem)
Orobanche uniflora (one-flowered cancerroot)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely)
Osmorhiza longistylis (long-styled snakeroot)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrputed fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Ostrya virginiana (eastern hop hornbeam)
Oxalis europaea
Oxalis stricta (yellow wood sorrel)
Pachysandra terminalis
Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng)
Panicum capillare (witch panic grass)
Panicum clandestinum (deer-tongue panic grass)
Panicum dichotomiflorum (fall panic grass)
Panicum dichotomum (forking panic grass)
Panicum lanuginosum (woolly panic grass)
Panicum miliaceum (proso millet panic grass)
Panicum scoparium (velvet panic grass)
Panicum villosissimum (villouspanic grass)
Panicum virgatum (switch panic grass)
Paronychia fastigiata (forked chickweed)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Paspalum setaceum
Pastinaca sativa (wild parsnip)
Paulownia tomentosa (empress tree)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Penstemon digitalis (foxglove beardtongue)
Penthorum sedoides (ditch stonecrop)
Philadelphus coronarius (European mock orange)
Phleum pratense (timothy grass)
Phlox divaricata (wild blue or forest phlox)
Phlox glaberrima
Phlox paniculata (summer or garden phlox)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Physalis heterophylla (clammy ground cherry)
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)
Picea abies (Norway spruce)
Picea alba (white spruce)
Pilea pumila (clearweed)
Pinus nigra
Pinus pungens
Pinus resinosa (red pine)
Pinus rigida (pitch pine)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Pinus sylvestris (scotch pine)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain)
Plantago major (common plantain)
Plantago rugelii (American plantain)
Platanus acerifolia
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore)
Poa annua (annual bluegrass)
Poa compressa (Canada bluegrass)
Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue grass)
Poa trivialis (rough-stalked bluegrass)
Podophyllum peltatum (mayapple)
Polemonium reptans (spreading jacob's ladder)
Polygonatum biflorum (true Solomon's seal)
Polygonatum pubescens (hairy Solomon's seal)
Polygonum arenastrum (dooryard knotweed)
Polygonum arifolium (halberd-leaved tearthumb)
Polygonum aviculare (knotweed)
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose knotweed)
Polygonum convolvulus (black bindweed)
Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed)
Polygonum erectum (smartweed)
Polygonum hydropiper (mild water pepper knotweed)
Polygonum hydropiperoides (false water pepper knotweed)
Polygonum lapathifolium (nodding smartweed)
Polygonum orientale
Polygonum pensylvanicum (Pennsylvania smartweed)
Polygonum punctatum (dotted smartweed)
Polygonum sagittatum (arrow-leaved tearthumb)
Polygonum scandens (climbing bindweed)
Polygonum virginianum (Virginia knotweed)
Polypodium virginianum (Virginia rockcap fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed)
Populus alba (white poplar)
Populus deltoides (cottonwood)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Populus grandidentata (big tooth aspen)
Portulaca oleracea (common purslane)
Potamogeton sp. (pond weed)
Potentilla argentea (silvery cinquefoil)
Potentilla canadensis (dwarf cinquefoil)
Potentilla norvegica (rough cinquefoil)
Potentilla recta (rough-fruited cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Prenanthes alba (white lettuce)
Prenanthes trifoliolata (tall rattlesnake root)
Proserpinaca palustris (common mermaidweed)
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal)
Prunus avium (sweet cherry)
Prunus pensylvanica (pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Ptelea trifoliata (hop tree)
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)
Pueraria lobata (Kudzu vine)
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (narrow-leaved mountain mint)
Pyrus communis (pear)
Pyrus malus (apple)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Quercus phellos (willow oak)
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak)
Quercus robur (English oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)

Ranunculus abortivus (kidney leaved buttercup)
Ranunculus bulbosus (bulbous buttercup)
Ranunculus ficaria (lesser celandine)
Ranunculus hispidus (hispid buttercup)
Ranunculus pensylvanicus (bristly crowfoot)
Ranunculus recurvatus (hooked crowfoot)
Ranunculus repens (creng buttercup)
Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)
Rhamnus cathartica (common buckthorn)
Rhododendron maximum (rosebay rhododendron)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pinkster flower)
Rhodotypos scandens (jet bead)
Rhus copallinum (winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Ribes americanum (eastern black currant)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (water yellow cress)
Rosa eglanteria (sweetbriar rose)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
Rosa rugosa (wrinkled rose)
Rubus alleghaniensis (highbush blackberry)
Rubus canadensis (smooth blackberry)
Rubus flagellaris (northern dewberry)
Rubus idaeus (red raspberry)
Rubus laciniatus (evergreen blackberry)
Rubus odoratus (purple flowering raspberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry raspberry)
Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima (black-eyed susan)
Rudbeckia laciniata (green-headed coneflower)
Rumex acetosella (field sorrel)
Rumex crispus (curled dock)
Rumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)
Sagina procumbens (pearlwort)
Sagittaria graminea (grass-leaved arrowhead)
Sagittaria latifolia (broad-leaved arrowhead)
Salix alba (white willow)
Salix babylonica (weng willow)
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Salix fragilis (crack willow)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry)
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)
Sanicula marilandica (black sanicle)
Sanicula trifoliata (beaked sanicle)
Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Satureja vulgaris (wild basil)
Saxifraga pensylvanica (swamp saxifrage)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem grass)
Scilla siberica (Siberian bluebell)
Scirpus americanus (Olney three-square bulrush)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark-green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass bulrush)
Scirpus microcarpus (small-fruited bulrush)
Scirpus validus (soft stem bulrush)
Scleranthus annuus (knawel)
Scrophularia lanceolata (hare figwort)
Scutellaria galericulata (marsh skullcap)
Scuttellaria lateriflora (maddog skullcap)
Sedum acre (golden carpet stonecrop)
Sedum purpureum (live forever)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Senecio jacobaea (tansy ragwort)
Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel)
Setaria faberi (Faber's or nodding foxtail)
Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail grass)
Setaria viridis (green foxtail grass)
Sicyos angulatus (bur cucumber)
Silene caroliniana (wild pink)
Silene latifolia (white campion)
Silene stellata (star campion)
Silene virginica (fire pink)
Sisymbrium altissimum (tumble mustard)
Sisymbrium officinale (hedge mustard
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium montanum (blue-eyed grass)
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal)
Smilax glauca (sawbrier greenbrier)
Smilax herbacea (carrion flower greenbrier)
Smilax rotundifolia (round-leaved greenbrier)
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle nightshade)
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade)
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)
Solidago bicolor (silverrod goldenrod)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod)
Solidago flexicaulis (zig-zag goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod)
Solidago macrophylla (big-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-stemmed goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Sonchus arvensis (field sow thistle)
Sonchus asper (prickly sow thistle)
Sonchus oleraceus (common sow thistle)
Sophora japonica
Sparganium americanum (American burreed)
Sparganium eurycarpum (giant burreed)
Spiraea alba var. latifolia (meadowsweet)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush)
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut)
Stellaria graminea (lesser stitchwort)
Stellaria media (common chickweed)
Stellaria pubera (star chickweed)
Strophostyles helvula (annual woolly bean)
Stylophorum diphyllum
Symphytum officinale (common comfrey)
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
Syringa vulgaris (common lilac)
Tanecetum vulgare (common tansy)
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadow rue)
Thallictrum pubescens (tall meadow rue)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York beech fern)
Thelypteris palustris (marsh beech fern)
Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress)
Thuja occidentalis (arbor vitae) Cupressaceae
Thuja orientalis Cupressaceae
Tilia americana (American linden)
Tilia cordata
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Tradescantia virginiana (Virginia spiderwort)
Tragopogon dubius (fistulous goatsbeard)
Tragopogon porrifolius (vegetable-oyster goatsbeard)
Tridens flavus (purpletop or grease grass)
Trifolium arvense (rabbit foot clover)
Trifolium aureum (yellow clover)
Trifolium campestre (pinnate hop clover)
Trifolium dubium (least hop clover)
Trifolium hybridum (alslike clover)
Trifolium pratense (red clover)
Trifolium repens (white clover)
Triodanis oliata (round-leaved triodanis)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Tussilago farfara (colt's foot)
Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail)
Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)
Ulmus pumila
Urtica dioica v. dioica (stinging nettle)
Utricularia vulgaris (common bladderwort)
Uvularia oliata (oliate-leaved bellwort)
Uvularia sessilifolia (sessile-leaved bellwort)
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry)
Veratrum viride (swamp hellebore)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)
Verbena hastata (blue vervain)
Verbena urticifolia (white vervain)
Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed)
Veronica agrestis (field speedwell)
Veronica americana (American brooklime speedwell)
Veronica arvensis (corn speedwell)
Veronica filiformis (creng speedwell)
Veronica officinalis (common speedwell)
Veronica peregrina (purslane speedwell)
Veronica serpyllifolia (speedwell)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple-leaf viburnum)
Viburnum alnifolium (hobblebush viburnum)
Viburnum canadensis
Viburnum dentatum (arrowwood viburnum)
Viburnum lantana (viburnum)
Viburnum lentago (sweet or nannyberry viburnum)
Viburnum molle
Viburnum nudum v. cassinoides (wild raisin viburnum)
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)
Viburnum sieboldii (Siebold's viburnum)
Vicia americana (American vetch)
Vicia cracca (cow vetch)
Vicia sativa (common vetch)
Vicia tetrasperma (four seed vetch)
Vicia villosa (hairy vetch)
Vinca minor (periwinkle)
Viola blanda (sweet white violet)
Viola conspersa (dog violet)
Viola cucullata (marsh blue violet)
Viola pedata (birdfoot violet)
Viola pubescens (downy yellow violet)
Viola rafinesquii (wild pansy violet)
Viola sororia (common blue violet)
Viola striata (creamy violet)
Vitis aestivalis (summer grape)
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)
Vitis novae-angliae (New England grape)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)
Vulpia octoflora (six-weeks fescue grass)
Wisteria floribunda (Japanese wisteria)
Woodsia obtusa (blunt-lobed cliff fern)
Xanthium strumarium (common clotbur)
Xanthorhiza simplicissima (yellow root)
Xyris caroliniana (carolina yellow eyed grass)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)