Bronx, NY

W 248-252 Sts., Independence, Palisade Aves.

20.867 acres

A beautiful setting to "experience nature in art and human culture in a garden...". A 28 acre public estate offering world-renowned gardens, lawns/terraces overlooking the Hudson River and Palisades, a woodland restoration project, a landmark mansion, plus many arts and environmental programs (718) 549-3200.

Hours: 9:00 AM - 5:30 PM (4:30 PM winter months), Tues-Sun. Admission:

$4 Adults; $2 Students/Seniors; Free-Children under 6. Subway: #1 to

"231 Street". then Bus BX 7/BX 10/or BX 24 to 252 Street/ Riverdale

Avenue or Mosholu Van Service to Wave Hill gate at Independence and 249 St.


1843  -- Wave Hill built as a country home by jurist William Lewis Morris.

1866-1903  --  Publisher William Henry Appleton owns the house. Among his guests were Thomas Henry Huxley and Charles Darwin.

summers of 1870 and 1871  --  Theodore Roosevelt spent a small portion of his childhood here (at 12 and 13 years of age) when his father rented Wave Hill during the summers.

October, 1901 -- Mark Twain moves out of his home at 14 West 10th Street just off 5th Avenue in Manhattan to Wave Hill (which he leased); the health of his wife Livy was starting to decline again, partly due to bad public reaction to her husband's anti-imperialist writings and also to her husband's rants about the issue.

August, 1902 -- Livy has heart palpitations due to "nervous prostration" while vacationing in Maine and the family returns to Riverdale. Twain is only allowed to see her sparingly for fear that his bad moods and rants would disturb her.

July, 1903 -- the Twain family leaves Riverdale. They summer at Quarry Farm.

1903-1960  -- The developer of the Palisades Interstate Park, George Walbridge Perkins, lived at Georgian Glyndor Estate (at Wave Hill).  They leased Wave Hill House to Bashford Dean, a zooligist and curator of armor at the Metropolitan Museum, who built the Armor Hall on the Wave Hill mansion in order to house his growing armor collection. Perkins added greenhouses and acreage to Wave Hill and enhanced the landscaping. Blasting activities on the Palisades by such firms as that of the Carpenter Brothers would awaken his napping 2 year old. This upset Perkins to no end. 1862 -- born in Chicago; his father was the warden at a boy's reformatory. 1890s -- second-in-command of the world's largest insurance company. 1895 --  he starts accumulating properties to create a great estate along the Hudson River, including Oliver Harriman’s adjacent villa on the site of what is now Glyndor House at Wave Hill.  1900 -- meets New York State Governor Theodore Roosevelt; 15 days later Roosevelt receives legislation to establish the Commissioners of the Palisades Interstate Park. Vacationing at Lakewood, NJ, he received a telephone call from Roosevelt asking Perkins to serve on the commission. Christmas Eve, 1900 -- blasting on the Palisades ceases.  (Binnewies, 2001:13-17)

1942-1945  --  conductor Arturo Toscanini lives at Wave Hill.

1950-1956  --  chief members of the British Delegation to the United Nations reside here.

1960 --  Wave Hill given to the City of New York by Perkins-Freedman family.


Dr. Susan Yost

Acer palmatum (cut-leaved Japanese maple)
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)
Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)
Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven)
Albizia julibrissin (silk tree)
Amelanchier canadensis (shadbush)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)
Carya glabra (pignut hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry)
Cercis canadensis (redbud)
Chionanthus virginicus (fringe tree)
Cladrastis lutea (yellow wood)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Ilex opaca (American holly)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Maclura pomifera (osage orange)
Morus alba (white mulberry)
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (American hop hornbeam)
Picea abies (Norway spruce)
Pilea pumila (clearweed)
Pinus rigida (pitch pine)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Platanus x hybrida (London plane)
Prunus avium (sweet cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Pyrus communis (pear)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Rhus copallina (sumac)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Taxus cuspidata (yew)
Tilia cordata (linden)
Tilia americana (American basswood)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)

Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus)
Euonymus fortunei (euonymus)
Halesia carolina (silver bells)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry holly)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Ligustrum vulgare (common privet)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)
Lonicera tatarica (Tatarian honeysuckle)
Pachysandra terminalis (pachysandra)
Philadelphus coronariuus (mock orange)
Poncirus trifoliata
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pinkster flower rhododendron)
Rhodotypos scandens (jet bead)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
Rosa setigera (rose)
Rubus alleghaniensis (common blackberry)
Rubus flagellaris (dewberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry)
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum (arrowwood viburnum)
Viburnum lantana (viburnum)
Viburnum lentago (nannyberry viburnum)
Viburnum opulus (cranberry viburnum)
Viburnum prunifolium (black haw viburnum)
Viburnum sieboldii (Siebold's viburnum)

Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelain berry)
Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
Clematis terniflora (sweet autumn clematis)
Hedera helix (English ivy)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Menispermum canadense (moonseed)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Pueraria lobata (kudzu vine)
Sicyos angulatus (cucumber)
Smilax glauca (sawbrier)
Smilax herbacea (carrion flower greenbrier)
Smilax rotundifolia (round-leaved greenbrier)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vitis aestivalis (summer grape)

Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf)
Acalypha rhomboidea (three-seeded mercury)
Aegopodium podagraria (goutweed)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Allium vineale (field garlic)
Amaranthus hybridus (amaranth)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed)
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Aralia elata (aralia)
Arctium minus (lesser burdock)
Arisaema triphyllum (jack in the pulpit)
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Aster cordifolius (blue heart-leaved aster)
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster)
Aster lanceolatus (old A. simplex) (sharp-leaved aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Barbarea vulgaris (common wintercress)
Bidens frondosa (devil's beggar ticks)
Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh)
Chelidonium majus (celandine)
Chenopodium album (pigweed)
Chenopodium urbicum
Chiondoxa lucillae (glory of the snow)
Chionodoxa sardensis (glory of the snow)
Cichorium intybus (chicory)
Cimicifuga racemosa (bugbane; black snakeroot)
Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade)
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle)
Claytonia virginica (spring beauty)
Commelina communis (Asiatic dayflower)
Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley)
Conyza canadensis (horseweed)
Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort)
Cymbalaria muralis (kennilworth ivy)
Datura stramonium (jimson weed)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
Duchesnea indica (Indian strawberry)
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane)
Endymion non-scriptus
Erechtites hieraciifolia (pileweed)
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane)
Erigeron philadelphicus (common fleabane)
Erythronium albidum (white trout lily)
Erythronium americanum (yellow trout lily)
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot)
Euphorbia maculata (spotted spurge)
Fragaria virginiana (common strawberry)
Galinsoga ciliata (quickweed)
Galium aparine (cleavers)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium)
Geranium sibericum (Siberian geranium)
Geum canadense (white avens)
Glechoma hederacea (gill over the ground)
Heliopsis helianthoides
Hemerocallis fulva (tawny daylily)
Heracleum mantegazzianum
Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket)
Hosta ventricosa (hosta)
Humulus japonicus (Japanese hops)
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed)
Ipomoea purpurea (vine)
Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke sunflower)
Lactuca biennis (lettuce)
Lactuca serriola (lettuce)
Lamium purpureum (purple dead nettle)
Lapsana communis (nipplewort)
Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort)
Lepidium virginicum (poor man's pepper)
Lobelia siphilitica (great blue lobelia)
Lycium barbarum (matrimony vine)
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife)
Medicago lupulina (black medick)
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover)
Mertensia virginica (Virginia bluebells)
Mitella diphylla (twp-leaved mitrewort)
Narcissus pseudo-narcissus (daffodil)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Ornithogalum umbellatum (star-of-Bethlehem)
Osmorhiza longistylis (aniseroot)
Oxalis stricta (yellow wood sorrel)
Phlox divaricata (phlox)
Physalis heterophylla (ground cherry)
Phytolacca americana (pokeberry)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain)
Plantago major (common plantain)
Plantago rugelii (plantain)
Podophyllum peltatum (May apple)
Polygonatum biflorum (true Solomon's seal)
Polygonum aviculare (dooryard smartweed)
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose smartweed)
Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese smartweed)
Polygonum lapathifolium (nodding smartweed)
Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb smartweed)
Polygonum scandens (climbing false buckwheat)
Polygonum virginiaum (jumpseed or Virginia knotweed)
Portulaca oleracea (purslane)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Ranunculus ficaria (lesser celandine)
Rumex obtusifolia (broad-leaved dock)
Rumex patientia (patience dock)
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)
Saponaria officinalis (soapwort)
Scilla sibirica (Siberian squill)
Silene pratensis
Silene stellata (starry campion)
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal)
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)
Solidago caesia (bluestem goldenrod)
Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod)
Sonchus oleraceus (sow thistle)
Sorbaria aitchisonii
Stellaria media (common chickweed)
Stylophorum diphyllum (celandine poppy)
Symphytum officinale (common comfrey)
Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion)
Thalictrum dioicum (meadowrue)
Trifolium pratense (red clover)
Trifolium repens (white clover)
Trillium erectum (purple trillium)
Trillium grandiflorum
Trilobum hybridum
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle)
Uvularia perfoliata (perfoliate-leaved bellwort)
Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)
Verbena urticifolia (white vervain)
Veronica arvensis (corn speedwell)
Vicia cracca (cow vetch)
Viola pubescens (yellow forest violet)
Viola sororia (common blue violet)
Viola striata (violet)
Yucca filamentosa (Adam's needle)

Rushes and Sedges:
Carex blanda (sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex rosea (sedge)
Carex tribuloides (sedge)
Carex vulpinoidea (sedge)
Carex virescens (sedge)
Cyperus strigosus (umbrella sedge)
Juncus tenuis (path rush)

Agropyron repens (quack grass)
Agrostis stolonifera
Andropogon virginicus (beard grass)
Arrhenatherum elatius (tall oat grass)
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Digitaria sanguinalis (crab grass)
Eleusine indica (zipper grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple love grass)
Lolium multiflorum (rye grass)
Miscanthus sinensis (eulalia)
Muhlenbergia schreberi (nimblewill)
Panicum clandestinum (deer-tongue grass)
Phleum pratense (timothy grass)
Poa nemoralis (bluegrass)
Poa trivialis (bluegrass)
Setaria faberi (nodding foxtail grass)
Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail grass)
Tridens flavus (purple top grass)

Ferns and Fern Allies:
Athyrium asplenioides
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris austriaca var. spinulosa (spinulose woodfern)
Equisetum arvense (field horsetail)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern)

Sponsor: Torrey Botanical Club

Date: July 10, 1988

Leader: Dr. Susan Yost

After enjoying the panoramic views of the Palisades Cliffs across the Hudson River, 14 individuals set out on the nature trail to look at summer flora and learn about urban woodland management at the former estate, Wave Hill. The temperature was 95 and above. The eight-acre natural area at Wave Hill has a variety of plant communities, with approximately 250 species of vascular plants, of which a relatively high proportion are introduced. Plant associations visited included an even-aged black locust stand, a more mature oak-maple stand, a black birch stand, and meadows and other open areas.

The black locust stand is dominated by 28-year-old black locust trees (Robinia pseudoacacia) and black cherry (Prunus serotina), with many seedlings and saplings of bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis). Common woodland herbs seen in this area were enchanter's nightshade (Circea lutetiana), white snakeroot (Eupatorium rugosum) (not in bloom), blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), and tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica).

In another area presently dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides), the majority of seedlings and saplings are native sugar maple (A. saccharum), and introduced Norway and sycamore maples (A. pseudoplatanus). Here, because of the ongoing drought, black snakeroot (Cimicifuga racemosa) was not in flower. Amur and Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii and L. japonica) are naturalized throughout the woods.

In the open areas/meadows, species seen included tall oat grass (Arrhenatherum elatius), fleabane (Erigeron annuus) and E. philadelphicus, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), and Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum). Here we observed the flowers and remarkable growth of porcelainberry vine (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata), and invasive species from Asia. Frequently mistake for grape (Vitis), this vine is one of the most common plants in the Wave Hill Natural Area.

The natural area is being managed by the Wave Hill Forest Project to favor native plant species. A vegetation survey was conducted and permanent plots were established in 1987. We ended the walk with a visit to the aquatic garden, and alpine and other greenhouses. Attendance was 14.