STONY POINT BATTLEFIELD PARK
Stony Point, NY 

Open from April 15th to October 31st. Wednesday - Saturday 10 a.m. to 5 p.m and Sunday 1 to 5 p.m. $5.00 admission charge on Saturday and Sunday.  $2.00 for the museum.


Directions:

US 87 north to exit 13n for Palisades Interstate Parkway; get off at exit 15 for Route 210e; in the town of Stony Point turn left onto Route 9Wn; turn right onto Park Road (green mileage marker 11 90) which leads to Battlefield Road and the park entrance.


Geology:

The bedrock of Stony Point, a knobby promontory in the Hudson, is part of the late Ordovician Cortlandt igneous complex.  This is a unique geologic feature consisting of several intrusive bodies that contain a wide range of dark rocks, some quite rare. The bulk of the complex lies across the river south of Peekskill.  (Van Diver 1985:65)


History:

The park literature says:

Stony Point Battlefield State Historic Site, located on Park Road off Rt. 9W in the town of Stony Point, New York, is the site of a successful midnight assault by the American Light Infantry, commanded by Brigadier General Anthony Wayne, against a British Garrison in July, 1779.

The American general Anthony Wayne, b. near Paoli, Pa., 1745, d. 1796, won major recognition in the American Revolution and in Indian warfare. A dashing, brave soldier, known as Mad Anthony, Wayne served in Canada in 1776 and at Brandywine and Germantown in 1777; he encamped at Valley Forge during the winter of 1777-78. At the end of 1778 he was given command of a corps of light infantry. His most successful action was a surprise attack on the British at Stony Point on the Hudson River in July 1779.

On the Hudson River, at King's Ferry was a strong British fort, Stony Point. This fort was an important facet of the British defense along the Hudson. The fort was about one hundred and fifty feet high, on a rocky bluff on the western side of the Hudson. Three sides were surrounded by water and the fourth by a swamp. There were a series of redoubts and a large number of cannon -- placed to drive off attack. The fort was garrisoned under the command of Colonel Johnston with a force of five hundred men.

Wayne contemplated the capture of Stony Point, and eventually convinced Washington it could be done. The plan was kept unusually secret -- a plan that had to be swiftly executed. The soldiers selected came from Connecticut, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia and North Carolina. Washington approved of Wayne's carefully investigated plan and wrote to him: "That it should be attempted by the Light Infantry only, which should march under cover of the night and with the utmost secrecy to the enemy's lines, securing every person they find to prevent discovery."

On the night of July 15, Wayne and his men gathered at the foot of Stony Point. During the first minutes of July 16, 1779, General Anthony Wayne led 1200 light infantry against the British fortifications at Stony Point. As they approached, the garrison was aroused and began to shower cannon and musketry fire into the ranks of the assailants. However, the carefully planned attack was continued as each man knew exactly what his duty was. Wayne received a severe scalp wound, stunning him, but he pushed on ahead.

The plan was so carefully laid out that the American forces met at the center of the fort at practically the same time. The British flag was hauled down and the fort was surrendered by the British commander. The British prisoners numbered 543. Sixty-three British were killed, and the number of wounded is unknown.

The Americans lost fifteen, while eighty-three were wounded. Wayne sent Washington a message when the fort had been captured: "The fort and garrison with Col. Johnston are ours. Our officers and men behaved like men who are determined to be free."

The victory was a surprise to friend and foe alike. It was an outstanding victory of the Revolution and the most brilliant victory of "Mad Anthony's" career. On July 16, Washington congratulated Wayne, the officers and troops on their outstanding victory. Congress unanimously passed resolutions praising Wayne and his men and awarded Wayne with a gold medal commemorative of his gallant service.

Wayne's men won a victory that brought them glory, lifted American morale and proved to the world that the Continental Army could match the best troops of Europe. He continued to see action throughout the war.

Today, exhibits and a slide show are featured in the site museum. In addition, staff members in period dress demonstrate muskets, artillery, cooking and camp life on a regular basis. Guided and self-guided tours are also available and there are picnic areas, panoramic river views and the oldest lighthouse on the Hudson.

Stony Point Battlefield is the only preserved Revolutionary War battlefield in the lower Hudson Valley and the oldest lighthouse on the Hudson River and the only one in Rockland County is located on our grounds. Each season they sponsor a number of special events including evening tours of the battlefield and the lighthouse.  Built in 1826, this is the Hudson Valley's oldest lighthouse.

In 1902 the park opened to visitors.

In 1946 the Stony Point Battlefield Reservation was transferred to the Palisades Interstate Park Commission from the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society.


PLANT LIST:
Dr. Patrick L. Cooney
* = 7/30/03 date plant found in bloom


Trees:
Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer pensylvanicum (striped maple)
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (musclewood)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)
Carya spp. (hickory)
Catalpa sp. (catalpa)
Celtis occidentalis (northern hackberry)
Cercis canadensis (redbud) planted
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Fagus sylvatica (copper beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus nigra (black ash)?
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Morus alba (white mulberry)
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (American hop hornbeam)
Picea abies (Norway spruce) planted
Pinus sp. (nigra or resinosa?) (pine)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore)
Populus deltoides (cottonwood)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Pyrus malus (apple)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Tilia americana (American basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)

Shrubs:
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush) *
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepper bush)
Cornus alternifolia (alternate-leaved dogwood)
Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood)
Cornus kousa (Korean dogwood)
Ligustrum sp. (privet)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
Rosa rugosa (wrinkled rose)
Rosa sp. (rose) *
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry)
Rubus sp. (blackberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (mapleleaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum (arrowwood viburnum)
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)

Vines:
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelain berry)
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
Dioscorea villosa (wild yamroot)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Menispermum canadense (Canada moonseed)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Solanum rotundifolium (round-leaved greenbrier)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vincetoxicum nigrum (black swallowwort)
Vitis aestivalis (summer grape)
Vitis sp. (grape)

Herbs:
Acalypha rhomboidea (three-seeded mercury)
Achillea millefolium (common yarrow) *
Actaea alba (doll's eyes)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) *
Allium vineale (field garlic)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)
Antennaria sp. (pussytoes)
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp) *
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack in the pulpit)
Artemesia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) *
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed) *
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle)
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed) *
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy) *
Cichorium intybus (chicory) *
Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade)
Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) *
Cirsium discolor (field thistle)
Coronilla varia (crown vetch) *
Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort) *
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace) *
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink) *
Erigeron annua (common daisy fleabane) *
Eupatorium fistulosum (trumpetweed)
Euphorbia maculata (spotted spurge)
Galium mollugo (wild madder) *
Galium circaezens (wild licorice)
Geranium sp. (geranium)
Glechoma hederacea (gill over the ground)
Gnaphalium obtusifolium (sweet everlasting)?
Hemerocallis fulva (tawny day lily) *
Hypericum perforatum (common St. Johnswort) *
Iris sp. (blue or yellow flag)
Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce) *
Laportea canadensis (wood nettle)
Lemna sp. (duckweed)
Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort) *
Lepidium virginicum (poor man's pepper)
Linaria canadensis (blue toadflax) *
Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs) *
Ludwigia palustris (marsh purslane)
Lycopus virginicus (Virginia bugleweed)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife) *
Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort)
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) *
Medicago lupulina (black medick) *
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover) *
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover) *
Monarda punctata (horsemint) *
Nepeta cataria (catnip) *
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose) *
Oxalis sp. (yellow wood sorrel) *
Peltandra virginiana (arrow arum)
Physalis sp. (Ground cherry) *
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) *
Plantago major (common plantain)
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose smartweed) *
Potentilla argentea (silvery cinquefoil) *
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) *
Rubus odoratus (purple flowering raspberry)
Rumex crispus (curled dock)
Rumex obtusifolius (broad dock)
Sagittaria latifolia (broad-leaved arrowhead)
Satureja vulgaris (wild basil) *
Scutellaria lateriflora (mad-dog skullcap) *
Silene vulgaris (bladder campion *
Sisymbrium officinale (hedge mustard) *
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)
Solidago flexicaulis (zigzag goldenrod)
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) *
Teucrium canadense (American germander) *
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadowrue)
Trifolium pratense (red clover)
Trifolium repens (white clover) *
Triodanis perfoliata (Venus look glass)
Typha latifolia (cattail)
Urtica dioica v. procera (tall stinging nettle) *
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) *
Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) *
Viola sp. (violet)

Rushes:
Juncus tenuis (path rush)

Sedges:
Carex laxiflora type (loose-flowered sedge type)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Cyperus lupulinus (slender flatsedge)
Cyperus sp. (nut sedge type)

Grasses:
Bromus tectorum (downy chess bromegrass)
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Echinochloa crusgalli (barnyard grass)
Elymus sp. (wild ryegrass)
Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)
Panicum clandestinum (deer-tongue grass)
Panicum sp. (panic grass)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Poa annua (annual bluegrass)
Poa compressa (Canada bluegrass)
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)
Setaria faberi (nodding foxtail grass)
Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail grass)

Ferns:
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal woodfern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern)