GREEN POND
Harriman State Park, Orange County, NY


Directions:

US 87 north to exit 15A; left turn onto Route 17 north; turn left at the intersection with Rt 17A; at the stop sign, turn right onto Route 106; drive 2.3 miles to a parking lot on the right, passing the southern side of Lake Stahahe.

Or US 87 north to exit 13N for Palisades Interstate Parkway to exit 14; turn left and go over the overpass going over the Palisades Interstate Parkway; travel about 7.6 miles to the parking area. This way is a beautiful drive after you pass the disturbing large-scale developments along Gate Hill Road (Route 106). As of 11/18/00 you will pass by the development of the Stoney Ridge Estates. The development of this rectangular area between Cheesecote Mountain and Harriman Park will soon be a huge developed area. The developers take advantage of every little niche, don't they? You will pass by Lake Welch Beach at 3.3 miles and Little Long Pond at about 5.5 miles.


History:

In 1918 there was camping at Lake Stahahe. In 1918 water from Green Pond was brought to the campers through a pipeline. (Myles 1991:349)


Trails:

You can take the long way by turning right off Route 17 north just after the Red Apple Rest and just before the post office. Park near the old abandoned motel facing the railroad tracks. You have to follow the railroad tracks north for awhile before traveling over US 87. The Nurian Trail (white-blazed) leads to the Dunning Trail and the Dunning Trail goes along the rocky edge of the tiny Green Pond. It passes under an overhanging rock. Green Pond is found in the hills west of Lake Stahahe. It is also south of Island Pond. But this is the long way.

The easier way is to park where we suggested in the Directions section and walk northwest along the road to the White Bar Trail unmarked trail heading north. Heading counter clockwise, skip the first intersection with the Nurian Trail and then take the second intersection on the left; it will take you to Green Pond. To get even close to Green Pond take the Dunning Trail left as you get close to Green Pond.

There is a marsh on the south side of the pond that drains west into Lake Stahahe.

Green Pond is located at an altitude of 310 m. The pond is approximately 100 m in diameter and the bog mat, located at the southern end, is about 0.25 ha in area and up to 30 m in width. The bog is surrounded by a swamp thicket. Phragmites australis is here.


Trails II:

5/01/01 Cross the street and get onto the white bar trail (white blazed); cross a small stream; go through an area so open and devoid of trees that it looks more like a park than a forest; go through hemlock grove; through a mountain laurel alleyway; up to Green Pond via the yellow trail. Phragmites has taken over most of the pond but in the north there is some of the leatherleaf bog left. The yellow trail goes along the ledges next to the bog and pond. A couple of shadbush in bloom in the bog area.

Up the ledges and back towards our starting point. Detour up the hill to see the surrounding area. Way too many tress dead and lying down on the ground. Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge) dominates the mountain area. Back to the starting point via the white blazed trail.


PLANT LIST:
Dr. Patrick L. Cooney and Michael St. John, 5/01/01

dates indicated when plant found in bloom.


Trees:
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Amelanchier arborea (shadbush) 5/01/01
Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Carpinus carolina (musclewood)
Carya glabra (pignut hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Crataegus sp. (hawthorn)
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Larix sp. (larch)
Ostrya americana (American hop horn beam)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Populus deltoides (cottonwood)?
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Tilia americana (American basswood)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)

Shrubs:
Aralia spinosa (Hercules club)
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Chamaedaphne calyculata (leatherleaf) 5/01/01
Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Comptonia peregrina (sweetfern)
Cornus alternifolia (alternate-leaved dogwood)
Decodon verticillata (swamp loosestrife)
Eubotrys racemosa (fetterbush)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel) 10/06/01
Ilex verticillata (winterberry holly)
Kalmia angustifolia (lambkill)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry)
Rhododendron maximum (rosebay rhododendron)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Ribes sp. (currant)
Rubus hispidus (hispid dewberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry)
Rubus sp. (blackberry)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush)
Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac)
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry) 5/01/01 soon
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)
Vaccinium sp. (a low bush blueberry)

Vines:
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut)
Cuscuta sp. (dodder)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)

Herbs:
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting) 10/05/01 waning
Antennaria sp. (pussytoes) 5/01/01
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Aster cordifolius (heart-leaved aster) 10/05/01
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster) 10/05/01
Aster linariifolius (stiff aster) 10/05/01
Aster sp. (small white aster)
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed)
Chenopodium album (lamb's ear)
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle)
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink) 10/06/01
Epifagus virginiana (beechdrops)
Erechtites hieraciifolia (pileweed)
Galium sp. (bedstraw)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium )
Geum canadense (white avens)
Hedeoma pulegioides (penny royal)
Hieracium sp. (hawkweed)
Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs) 10/05/01
Lycopus sp. (water horehound)
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover)
Nuphar sp.? (lily pad)?
Panax trifolius (dwarf ginseng) 5/01/01
Polygonatum sp. (true Solomon's seal)
Potentilla canadensis (dwarf cinquefoil)
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Ranunculus abortivus (kidney-leaf crowfoot) 5/01/01
Ranunculus recurvatus (hooked buttercup)
Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant)
Saxifraga virginiensis (early saxifrage) 5/01/01
Solidago bicolor (silverrod) 10/05/01
Solidago caesia (blue-stem goldenrod) 10/05/01
Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) 5/01/01
Triadenum virginicum (marsh St. Johnswort)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) 10/05/01 one in bloom
Veronica officinalis (common speedwell)
Viola sororia (common blue violet) 5/01/01

Rushes:
Juncus canadensis (Canada rush)
Juncus effusus (soft rush)
Juncus tenuis (path rush)
Luzula multiflora (wood rush) 5/01/01

Sedges:
Carex laxiflora type (sedge)
Carex lurida (sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (sedge) 5/01/01
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Dulichium arundinaceum (three-way sedge)
Scirpus cyperinus (woolly grass bulrush)

Grasses:
Panicum clandestinum (deer-tongue grass)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little blue stem grass)

Ferns and Fern Allies:
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal woodfern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Polypodium sp. (rock cap fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern)

Other:
Sphagnum sp. (sphagnum moss)


HISTORICAL TRIP REPORTS:

Green Pond lacks Andromeda qlaucophylla, Larix laricina, Peltandra virginica, Rhynchospora alba and Picea mariana. Kalmia polifolia is common. Also here is Toxicodendron vernix and Phragmites australis. (Lynn and Karlin 1985: 438-439).


June 29, 1975.
The group met first at the field facility of the Department of Biology of New York University in Sterling Forest and later by car caravan traveled by Route 210 to the departure point in Harriman Park. Green Pond, at an elevation of 1030 feet, is three-fourths of a mile by wagon road and trail north of Route 210. It lies just east of the northern end of Lake Stahahe, the westernmost large lake in the park. Circular in outline and about 250 feet across, the pond lies in an elongate glacial depression, the major part of which is some 600 feet wide and 800 feet long.

After arrival at the pond, the leader assembled the group at a viewpoint on the northern rocky rim and presented a rundown of the glacial origin of the depression about 20,000 years ago, the nature of plant succession taking place, the gradual accompanying displacement of the water body by sedimentation, and the successional stages evident in the vegetation.

On slogging across the boggy surface, the group then examine the plants that occur in the pond. Pioneers at the water's edge make up the "mat" and constitute the peripheral portions. Care was taken to avoid individuals of poison sumac (Rhus vernix) occurring not uncommonly on the surface.

Only the yellow pond lily (Nuphar advena) was noted forming the floating stage of the succession while water loosestrife (Decodon verticillatus) and leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata) were conspicuous as mat-formers. Leatherleaf is by far dominant on the mat where highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum and V. atrococcum), clammy azalea (Rhododendron viscosum), sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia), and some bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), chokeberry (Pyrus arbutifolia), and sweet pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia) are only scattered. Pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) grow here and there among these emergent species in a thick carpet of sphagnum moss intertwined with cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus). They were in fruit at this time, having flowered only one to two weeks earlier.

Under conditions of greater consolidation, blueberries have formed a dense brushwork in places back from the mat. The cover of leatherleaf is reduced and ultimately eliminated by blueberry, presumably as a consequence of shading. A few wild calla (Calla palustris) occur in a small opening in the blueberry. An incipient bog forest stage in the succession is evident but were disturbed by changes in water relations by damming and/or fire some time ago. Large, dead tress of this stage are still standing. Only a few young red maple (Acer rubrum), hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and white pine (Pinus strobus) now grow on the bog. Early settlers in the area are believed to be responsible for upsetting the successional trend. The reed (Phragmites communis) established over the southern and eastern portions bordering Green Pond is almost certainly the result of this disturbance. Reed commonly forms dense stands in poorly-drained depressions throughout this region, where European man has been active for centuries particularly in connection with the mining of magnetite ore. Attendance was 55. Leader was Calvin J. Heusser.