CEDAR POND
Stirling Forest, Orange County, NY


Directions:

Tappan Zee Bride; US 87 west; get off at exit 15A; turn left onto Route 17 north; in 1.4 miles or so get off at the exit going to Ringwood (just after tan building on right); travel 2.8 miles to the intersection of Route 72 and Route 84 and turn right onto Route 84 north; travel two miles to just after the northern entrance to IBM, and turn left onto a road marked with a little sign "Blue Lake;" travel .4 of a mile and park by Blue Lake. There is a gate and a sign that says "Authorized Vehicles Only," but when we were there cars and pick-up trucks filled with hunters were going through anyway.


Habitats:

oak hickory ridge; leatherleaf bog; lake


Trails:

Follow the white trail to the green trail and follow the green trail to an opening at Cedar Pond.

We passed by a stream on the left side and a swampy area on the left side, but then it is up a steep hill to a level-off area and then up another smaller incline.


PLANT LIST:
Dr. Patrick L. Cooney, Dr. William F. Standaert, and Michael St. John


Trees:
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Amelanchier arborea (shadbush) 4/15/02
Aralia spinosa (Hercules club) a couple
Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (musclewood)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Carya sp. (glabra)? (pignut hickory)?
Castanea dentata (American chestnut)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Populus grandidentata (bigtooth aspen)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Tilia americana (American basswood)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) lots of dead or dying ones
Ulmus americana (American elm)

Shrubs:
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (button bush)
Chamaedaphne calyculata (leatherleaf)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Comptonia peregrina (sweetfern)
Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazel)
Decodon verticillatus (swamp loosestrife)
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen)
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry holly) 6/16/01 near
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel) 6/16/01
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel) 6/16/01
Lindera benzoin (spicebush) 4/15/02
Rhododendron maximum (rosebay rhododendron)
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea) 6/16/01
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
Rosa virginiana (Virginia rose) 6/16/01
Rubus hispidus (swamp dewberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)
Rubus odoratus (purple-flowering raspberry) 6/16/01
Rubus sp. (black berry)
Rubus sp. (dewberry)
Salix discolor (pussy willow) 4/15/02
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry)
Sambucus racemosa (red elderberry)
Spiraea alba var. latifolia (meadowsweet)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush)
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)

Vines:
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelainberry) 6/16/01 near
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Smilax rotundifolia (round-leaved greenbrier)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vitis sp. (grape)
Wisteria floribunda (Japanese wisteria)

Herbs:
Achillea millefolium ssp. lanulosa (yarrow)
Actaea alba (white baneberry)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)
Antennaria plantaginifolia (plantain-leaved pussytoes)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp dogbane) few, off entrance road 6/16/01
Arabis laevigata var. laevigata (smooth rockcress) 1; immature fruit
Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla) some
Aralia racemosa (American spikenard) 1
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort) few
Aster divaricatus var. divaricatus (white wood aster) common
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle)
Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) 11/01/00
Cerastium vulgatum (common mouse-ear chickweed) common 6/16/01 & fruit
Chelone glabra (turtlehead) some, 1 site
Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen) 1; near fruiting
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (oxeye daisy) few; 6/16/01
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle)
Collinsonia canadensis (horsebalm) few
Conopholis americana (squawroot) 1 large patch 6/16/01
Coronilla varia [E.] (crown vetch) (seen by Patrick Cooney) side path 6/16/01
Cypripedium acaule (pink lady's slipper) 1
Desmodium paniculatum (panicled-leaf tick trefoil) few
Desmodium rotundifolium (prostrate tick trefoil) few patches
Desmodium sp. (tick trefoil) few
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink) few, off entrance road 6/16/01
Drosera rotundifolia (round-leaved sundew) some, Cedar Pond
Epifagus virginiana (beechdrops) few
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane) few 6/16/01
Erigeron sp. (fleabane)
Eupatorium rugosum var. rugosum (white snakeroot) few
Fragaria virginiana (common strawberry) few
Galium mollugo var. ... (wild madder) few patches 6/16/01
Galium obtusum var. obtusum (blunt-leaved bedstraw) 1; 6/16/01
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) few
Gnaphalium obtusifolium (sweet everlasting)
Hedeoma pulegioides (penny royal)
Hieracium piloselloides (glaucous king devil) some; 6/16/01
Hieracium venosum (rattlesnake hawkweed) 1, off entrance road
Hypericum perforatum (common St. Johnswort) 1
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) few
Iris versicolor (northern blue flag) 1; 6/16/01
Krigia biflora (two-flowered Cynthia) few; 6/16/01
Lepidium virginicum var. virginicum (peppergrass) few, off entrance road; fruiting
Lespedeza striata (Japanese bushclover) some large patches
Lespedeza sp. (bush clover) 2 patches
Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs) 1 patch, off entrance road
Lotus corniculatus (birdfoot trefoil) few 6/16/01
Lycopus virginicus (Virginia water horehound) 1 patch
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife) some 6/16/01
Maianthemum canadense var. ... (Canada mayflower) few
Malva moschata var. rubra [E.] (musk mallow) few, off entrance road 6/16/01 & im fruit
Medeola virginiana (Indian cucumber-root) 1; 6/16/01
Melampyrum lineare var. americanum (cow-wheat) few; 6/16/01
Melilotus alba (white sweetclover) few; 6/16/01
Mimulus ringens? (monkey flower)
Monarda fistulosa var. fistulosa (wild bergamot) few
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe) few clumps 6/16/01 & fruit
Myriophyllum spicatum (European water-milfoil) (seen by Patrick Cooney) 1, Blue Lake
Nymphaea sp. (water lily)?
Oenothera perennis (small sundrops) 1; 6/16/01 & immature fruit
Oxalis dillenii (southern yellow wood-sorrel) 1 (or more) 6/16/01 & fruit
Oxalis stricta (common yellow wood-sorrel) some; 6/16/01
Paronychia canadensis (forked chickweed)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum) 1, Cedar Pond
Pilea pumila var. pumila (clearweed) (seen by Wayne Morris & others) few
Plantago major (common plantain) common
Polygonatum pubescens (hairy Solomon's seal) some
Polygonum arifolium (halberd-leaved tearthumb) few
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose knotweed) 11/01/00 6/16/01
Polygonum sagittatum (arrow-leaved tearthumb) few
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil) common 6/16/01
Prenanthes sp. (rattlesnake root) few
Prunella vulgaris var. lanceolata (self-heal) few
Ranunculus abortivus var. ... (kidney-leaf buttercup) (seen by Patrick Cooney & others)
Rumex acetosella (sheep sorrel) some 6/16/01
Sarracenia purpurea var. purpurea (pitcher plant) few, Cedar Pond; 6/16/01
Scleranthus annuus (knawel) some, entrance road 6/16/01
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrowleaf blue-eyed grass) few 6/16/01
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal) some; immature fruit
Solidago bicolor (silverrod)
Solidago caesia (blue-stem goldenrod) some
Solidago canadensis (var.?) (Canada goldenrod) few
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod) few
Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) 4/15/02
Tragopogon sp. (dubius?) (yellow goat's beard?) few, off entrance road 6/16/01 past & fruiting
Trifolium aureum (yellow clover) some, off entrance road 6/16/01
Trifolium pratense (red clover) few 6/16/01
Trifolium repens (white clover) some 6/16/01
Triosteum aurantiacum var. aurantiacum (orange-fruited horse-gentian) 2, one site; imm fruit
Urtica dioica var. procera (tall nettle) (seen by Patrick Cooney & others)
Uvularia perfoliata (perfoliate-leaved bellwort) 1; immature fruit
Uvularia sessilifolia (sessile-leaved bellwort) few patches; immature fruit
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) 2, off entrance road
Veronica officinalis (common speedwell) some; 6/16/01
Viola conspersa (American dog violet) few, 1 site
Viola sagittata (arrow-leaved violet) some
Viola sp. (sororia?) (common blue violet)? some

Rushes
Juncus pylaei (common rush) few; 6/16/01 near
Juncus tenuis var. tenuis (path rush) some; immature fruit
Luzula multiflora (common woodrush) few; fruiting

Sedges
Carex crinita var. crinita (fringed sedge) few clumps; immature fruit
Carex laxiflora (loose-flowered sedge) some; fruiting
Carex lurida (shallow sedge) few clumps, 1 site 6/16/01
Carex pensylvanica var. pensylvanica (Pennsylvanian sedge) 4/15/02 some
Carex stricta (tussock sedge) few clumps; fruit
Carex vulpinoidea var. vulpinoidea (fox sedge) few 6/16/01& immature fruit
Carex spp. (Ovales and other groups) (sedge) many 6/16/01 & immature fruit
Dulichium arundinaceum (three-way sedge) some, Cedar Pond
Scirpus atrovirens var. atrovirens (dark green bulrush) few 6/16/01near
Scirpus cyperinus (wooly grass bulrush)

Grasses
Arrhenatherum elatius var. elatius (tall oatgrass) some 6/16/01
Danthonia compressa (flattened oatgrass) some 6/16/01near
Elymus sp. (wild rye grass)
Festuca pratensis (tall fescue) few 6/16/01 near
Festuca subverticillata (nodding fescue) some; 6/16/01near
Glyceria striata (fowl mannagrass) few patches 6/16/01 near
Lolium perenne var. perenne (perennial ryegrass) some 6/16/01
Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass) locally common
Panicum clandestinum (deer-tongue grass)
Panicum lanuginosum var. fasciculatum (woolly panicgrass) few 6/16/01
Panicum latifolium (broad-leaved panicgrass) some 6/16/01
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) (seen by Patrick Cooney & others) Blue Lake
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass) small patch, Blue Lake
Poa compressa (Canada bluegrass) some 6/16/01
Schizachyrium scoparium var. scoparium (little bluestem grass) few, off entrance road
Setaria faberi (nodding foxtail grass)
Setaria viridis (green foxtail grass)
Tridens flavus (purple top grass)

Ferns & fern allies
Equisetum arvense (field horsetail) (seen by Patrick Cooney & others)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (eastern hay-scented fern) common 6/16/01
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal woodfern) some; near fruiting
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern) few
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern) 1 patch
Osmunda claytoniana var. claytoniana (interrupted fern) 1
Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis (royal fern) some; near fruiting
Polypodium sp. (rock cap fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern) few
Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum (bracken fern) few patches
Thelypteris marginalis (marginal wood fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern) few; near fruiting
Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens (marsh fern) some, Cedar Pond
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)

Others:
(rock trip lichen)



Les M. Lynn and Eric F. Karlin. 1985. "The vegetation of low shrub bogs of northern NJ and adjacent NY: Ecosystems at their southern limit." Vol. 112, #4, 436-444. October-December 1985.


6 Low Shrub Bogs:

Green Pond Hudson Highlands (Orange County)
Spruce Pond -- Hudson Highlands (Orange County)
Cedar Pond -- Hudson Highlands (Orange County) on top of Wildcat Mountain 220 m 2.8 km west of Green Pond

Uttertown Bog -- Montgomery and Fairbrothers 1963 (Passaic County)
Lost Lake Niering 1953 (Sussex County)
Mishaps Bog (Sussex County)


Dominant low shrub bog plants:

Chamaedaphne calyculata
Decodon verticillatus
Kalmia angustifolia
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Sphagnum spp.

Plants at all 6 sites:

Acer rubrum (red maple)
Carex canescens (sedge)
Chamaedaphne calyculata (leatherleaf)
Drosera intermedia (sundew)
Drosera rotundifolia (round-leaved sundew)
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry)
Hypericum virginicum
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant)
Vaccinium oxycoccus (smaller cranberry)
Vaccinium macrocarpon (larger cranberry)
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep kill)


Sphagnum spp.

Sphagnum bartlettianum
Sphagnum fallax
Sphagnum magellanicum
Sphagnum recurvatum
Sphagnum rubellum

Plants at 5 sites:
Decodon verticillatus
Larix laricina (larch)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Picea mariana (black spruce)
Rhynchospora alba (beak rush)

Plants at 3 or 4 sites:
Andromeda glaucophylla
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Calla palustris
Carex trisperma
Clethra alnifolia
Eriophorum virginicum
Gaylussacia frondosa
Kalmia polifolia
Picea rubens
Rhus vernix
Woodwardia virginica

Plants at 1 or 2 sites:
Betula populifolia
Bidens descoides
Calopogon pulgellus
Carex howeii
Carex limosa
Carex stricta
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonweed)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar)
Cicuta bulbifera (bulb-bearing)
Dryopteris thelypteris
Dulichium arundinacea (three-way sedge)
Eleocharis divacea
Epilobium lateriflora (maddog skullcap)
Galium labradoricum
Hypericum mutilum
Lycopus uniflorus (bugleweed)
Lyonia ligustrina
Lysimachia terrestris (swamp candles)
Melampyrum lineare (cowwheat)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Sagittaria engelmanii (arrow head)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Utricularia intermedia (bladderwort)
Utricularia subulata (bladderwort)
Xyris caroliniana (yellow-eyed grass)
Xyris montana (yellow-eyed grass)


Low Shrub Bogs:

Acer rubrum (red maple)
Andromeda glaucophylla
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Betula populifolia
Bidens descoides
Calla palustris
Calopogon pulgellus
Carex canescens (sedge)
Carex howeii
Carex limosa
Carex stricta
Carex trisperma
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonweed)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar)
Chamaedaphne calyculata (leatherleaf)
Cicuta bulbifera (bulb-bearing)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Decodon verticillatus (yellow loosestrife)
Drosera intermedia (sundew)
Drosera rotundifolia (round-leaved sundew)
Dryopteris thelypteris (marsh fern)
Dulichium arundinacea (three-way sedge)
Eleocharis divacea
Epilobium lateriflora (maddog skullcap)
Eriophorum virginicum
Galium labradoricum
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry)
Gaylussacia frondosa
Hypericum mutilum
Hypericum virginicum
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep kill)
Kalmia polifolia
Larix laricina (larch)
Lycopus uniflorus (bugleweed)
Lyonia ligustrina
Lysimachia terrestris (swamp candles)
Melampyrum lineare (cowwheat)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Picea mariana (black spruce)
Picea rubens (red spruce)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Rhododendron viscossum (swamp azalea)
Rhynchospora alba (beak rush)
Sagittaria engelmanii (arrow head)
Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant)
Sphagnum bartlettianum
Sphagnum fallax
Sphagnum rubellum
Sphagnum recurvatum
Sphagnum magellanicum
Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Utricularia subulata (bladderwort)
Utricularia intermedia (bladderwort)
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)
Vaccinium macrocarpon (larger cranberry)
Vaccinium oxycoccus (smaller cranberry)
Woodwardia virginica (Virginia chain fern)
Xyris caroliniana (yellow-eyed grass)
Xyris montana (yellow-eyed grass)


HISTORICAL FIELD REPORTS

CEDAR POND
October 27, 1929

25 members and friends were led by Mr. J. A. Allis on a very interesting and delightful trip from Sterling Forest to Cedar pond. . . . From the fire lookout tower on Sterling Mountain the effect of the colors was especially fine. On the top of the mountain it was noted that the scrub oak, Quercus ilicifolia, had lost most of its leaves and all of its fruits.

The approach to Cedar Pond is over an old corduroy road through a dense growth of white cedar, Chamaecyparis thyoides, and rhododendron with a few red spruce, Picea rubra, the ground covered with fern mosses and hypnums and frequent patches of the liverwort, Bazzania. Around the pond the shrubby growth whose roots seemed to be the support of the bog, was mostly leather leaf, Chamaedaphne calyculata, with a little pale laurel, Kalmia polifolia, and highbush blueberry.

Growing in the sphagnum there was an abundance of pitcher plants, ranging from seedlings with leaves less than an inch long to mature plants, many of them a deep red in color. Near the edge of the bog were some large patches of the trailing club moss, Lycopodium complanatum, with it the more erect tree club moss, L obscurum dendroideum on somewhat higher ground and the bog club moss L inundatum, on the lower, damper ground. Here and there were small patches of the shining club moss, L lucidulum.

Where there were rock outcrops the ledges were fringed with the polypody fern, throughout the woods were quantities of the marginal and intermediate fern, splendid plants of the Christmas fern bordered the paths, some approaching the variety Schweinitzii, had fertile frond that measured 36 inches, the sterile over 24 inches. Several plants of Botrychium obliquum and a few of the variety dissectum were found. The three Osmundas and the hay-scented fern were noted, but all brown and withered as was the common bracken fern, the latter with stipes bent over and crushed.

For those who been on the trip the week before it was interesting to observe nearly all the goldenrods observed that time, excepting Solidago tenuifolia and ulmifolia and to add the ragged goldenrod, S squarrosa, the broad-leaved goldenrod, S latifolia, and the large leafed, S macrophylla.

George T. Hastings, leader


October 19, 1930

About eighteen members of the club joined half again as many of the Paterson Ramblers on a trip to the Cedar Ponds. From Greenwood Lake the party followed through the woods, noting many interesting plants and the colors of the trees which seem to tint the light that sifted through. At a fork in the trail part of the group turned off to visit the fire tower, the others kept on towards the ponds. As a maze of paths and old wood road spread thought the woods it is not surprising that only after walking a number of miles did the party realize that they had gone beyond the ponds. . . .

Close to the pond there is a fringe of small red spruce, further back where the land is low a good growth of the southern white cedar. Pitcher plants were abundant in the sphagnum of the pond border. It was interesting to note that most of the leaves contained lumps of ice. Just why water should freeze in the leaves of the pitcher plant and not in the pond nor in the pools in the moss is hard to understand. Possibly transpiration from the leaves lowered the temperature the fraction of a degree necessary to bring it below the freezing point. No trace of sundew could be found, apparently it had disappeared earlier in the season. Along the trail were large patches of various Lycopodiums (lucidulum, inundatum, obscurum dendroideum, and complanatum), all with abundant fertile branches. In some of the swampy ground the Virginia chain fern and the Massachusetts fern were found with numerous other commoner species.

George T. Hastings


Buckberg and Cedar Pond Brook
February 17, 1934
lichens
Raymond H. Torrey


November 6, 1938 p. 28

Eleven members and friends of the club assembled at the Wanaque-Midvale Station to meet Mr.. Worth Smith who substituted for J. Ashton Allis as leader of the outing. We drove up to the Ringwood Mines where the cars were parked through the courtesy of Supt. S. H. Morrison. It was overcast and the wind was in a threatening quarter but we started out optimistically for Cedar Pond.

Passing the idle marching of the old mine we followed a wood road to the northwest, traveling through second growth oak-hickory forest. The heavy litter of leaves obscured the ground plants but a few species of polypores and a good crop of oyster mushroom were observed. After crossing into New York State we passed a bank with a nice showing of Biomyces roseus. Other lichens nearby were various species and forms of Cladonia.

The trail soon came out on a more or less passable road, the old road from Hewitt to Sterling Furnace. The road passed over a height of land and along the descent a spring was found to the right of the road. After crossing a stream we left the road turning left up the brook. Some distance up stream a beaver dam was found and evidence of fresh beaver work. A considerable flooded area forced a detour across rough country over a ridge covered with huge boulders. This was not without its reward for the rocks were well populated with smooth and corrugated rock tripe. After the detour the trail led steeply upward to the pond.

Cedar Pond has an altitude of 1029 feet. It is wooded to the water's edge. There is a good stand of rhododendron, mountain laurel, some hemlock and to the north of the pond a swamp of southern white cedar. Across the pond and beyond to the northeast the fire tower on Stirling Mountain could be seen. After a leisurely lunch we walked perhaps one third of the way around the lake which is probably not over a quarter mile across at any point. The return trip started about 2 o'clock and under the stimulus of rain we made good progress. A short cut took us down to the old road near the trail back to the Mines, which were reached in about an hour.

John A. Small


LITTLE CEDAR POND
PLANT LIST:
Dr. William F. Standaert, 7/16/1955

To Little Cedar Pond, Beaufort M.S. (Just east of Greenwood Lake), New York. Botanical trip, by myself. Very hot, humid, buggy day. I parked at the pond, Sterling Furnace, and took the left fork (for maps of area see Greenwood Lake Quadrangle (6 & 9). I followed around the north and east shore of the new lake (not fully shown on maps) to the north end, where a small wooden bridge crosses the inlet brook. Then I waded, climbed and scrambled up the brook, swamps and mountains (one mile( to the south end of the pond. I had started late (2:00 at Sterling Furnace) and arrived at 4:00. I prowled around the eastern shore (nearly impenetrable!) and the cedar swamp on the northeast shore until 4:45 then returned the same way I came, stopping long enough at the northeast brook of the swamp (halfway down the hill) to catch a copperhead that I found in my way! Arrived back at the car at 6:00 , left everything in the car, and threw myself boots, clothes and all into the lake just west of Skyline Drive, Oakland, and to home by 8:15.

Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar) -- north east bog of Cedar Pond
Circaea quadrisulcata (enchanter's nightshade) -- woods, on way back
Desmodium rotundifolium (tick trefoil) -- hillside, near Copperhead Swamp
Drosera rotundifolia (round-leaf sundew) -- eastern shore of Little Cedar Pond
Dryopteris thelypteris -- along the shore of the new lake
Eubotrys (Leucothoe) racemosa (fetterbush) -- eastern shore of Little Cedar Pond
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen) -- along shore of the new lake
Gerardia virginica woods, edge of brook
Hydrocotyle americana (pennywort) -- near brook, near Copperhead Swamp
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry) -- eastern shore of Little Cedar Pond
Marchantia sp. (liverwort) -- northeast bog, Cedar Pond
Mimulus ringens (monkey flower) -- in brook swamps; 3 spots on way
Nemopanthus mucronata (mountain holly) -- southeast shore of Little Cedar Pond
Pyrus floribunda? -- southeast shore of Little Cedar Pond
Ranunculus ambigens (buttercup) -- ne inlet, in brook, near Copperhead Swamp
Sparganium (androcladum?) -- book, near Copperhead Swamp
Sphagnum sp. (sphagnum moss) -- northeast bog of Cedar Pond


Oct 8, 1972 p. 254

The object of this trip was to visit the bog forest and adjacent mat bordering the pond, located in the southern part of Sterlling Forest, and to discuss the Paleoecology of the bog peat and underlying lake sediments.

The bog forest consists of an almost pure stand of southern white cedar which is at least as 125 years old and contains trees as much as 3.5 dm in diameter breast high. Shrubs, in places forming a dense tangle, are represented by the great laurel (Rhododendron maximum), swamp azalea (R viscosum), fetterbush (now Eubotrys racemosa), highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), sweet pepperbush, and black alder (Ilex verticillata). Black spruce and larch (Larix laricina) are not uncommon on the mat which is predominantly formed by leatherleaf and Sphagnum.

Additional mat plants are sheep laurel, cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus), swamp azalea, highbush blueberry, bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia) pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) and sundew (Drosera rotundifolia). At the edge of the mat, water loosestrife (Decodon verticillatus) is the principal pioneer.

The pond is dystrophic. Its water, appearing reddish-brown, is tannin-charged and exhibits low values for oxygen, pH, and plankton. The pond is about 3m deep in its central part. Sections of the sediments underlying the mat 7-8 m in length and terminate in gray glacial clay. Pollen analyses of the sediments, considered to be 13,000 to 14,000 years old, shows a sequence of boreal forest of pine and spruce succeeded by deciduous forest dominated by oak. Attendance was 32. Leader, Calvin J. Heusser.


October 14, 1973 p. 370

The day was bright and clear with autumn foliage in full color. Tamarack on the bog mat, however, had not come into color. The protracted, late summer period of low rainfall made the going through the bog forest relatively easy. Low, peaty pockets between the trees of the southern white cedar community were barely moist; standing water, normally developed as the results of the fall hurricane season, had not returned. Plants constituting the mat, largely leather leaf, were noted. Sundew was found only in limited numbers, presumably the last of the season. The other insectivorous species, the pitcher plant, appeared not be be infrequent and well distributed, although individuals are being overgrown by the leatherleaf. In the leader's experience, pitcher plants exist at this station only in the vegetative state. In nearby Harriman Park, on the other hand, they have been observed to flower. Deer browsing of flowering shoots at little Cedar Pond may be the reason for this condition. Attendance was 6, leader Calvin J. Heusser.


April 22, 1978. P. 232.
Calvin J. Heusser


April 20, 1980 p. 453

The trip to Little Cedar Pond included hiking through the oak-maple forest that is typical of this area, a southern white cedar bog forest, and a characteristic northern bog mat. The upland forest revealed the only flowers in bloom: wood anemone (Anemone quinquefolia), Hepatica (Hepatica americana), and a sedge (Carex pensylvanica). False hellebore (Veratrum viride), a club moss (Lycopodium clavatum), and rattlesnake plantain (Goodyera pubescens) were also noted.

The bog forest is dominated by southern white cedar with elements of black spruce (Picea mariana) and red maple (Acer rubrum). Understory shrubs (Vaccinium atrococum), sweet pepperbush, and smooth winterberry (Ilex laevigata) are present. The bog mat has leather leaf, sheep laurel, huckleberry (Gaylussacia frondosa), and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium atrococum) as the major ericaceous shrubs. Swamp loosestrife (Docodon verticillatus) plays an important role in the expansion of the mat.

Little Cedar pond offers a classical example of hydrarch succession concerning bog formation. This typical northern bog with its associated southern white cedar bog forest, makes this ecosystem unique in this area. Attendance was 20, leader, Les Lynn.