LIBERTY STATE PARK (MORRIS CANAL SITE)
Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ


Directions:

Take the New Jersey Turnpike south and head for the series of exit 14s (14A, 14B, 14C, 14D), starting with Newark Airport. One of the exits after the Newark Airport is the one for Liberty State Park.

Karl Anderson, curator of the Rancocas Nature Center, has done the work on this park. He published a list of the plants in Bartonia No. 55:47-52, 1989 ("Plants of Liberty State Park, New Jersey). Most of the information is taken from this article.

Liberty State Park (1100 acres) is located directly across the Hudson River from the southern tip of Manhattan, Ellis Island, and Liberty Island. It is interesting to see the Statue of Liberty from the back side.


History:

As "Communipaw," this area was a major seaport and railroad terminal from the early nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth century. This park was once a railroad yard, and before that a dumping ground for ships' ballast. As a result, it has a rich flora of adventive species.

Around 1869, the Central Railroad of New Jersey filled about 300 acres to a depth of about two feet above high tide. Eventually, the shoreline was shifted as much as 4,000 feet from its original line, which was located roughly where the New Jersey Turnpike is today.

At the peak of railroad traffic here (in the early 1900s), on a busy day, over 28,000 people might pass through the Jersey Central Passenger Terminal here at Communipaw.

The state of New Jersey acquired the land, in increments, between 1970 and 1975. The park was officially dedicated in 1976. To make all this possible, the land was virtually denuded of everything, including vegetation. Therefore, today the park is undergoing secondary succession. Old fields are dominated by goldenrods, eupatoriums, and mugworts.

There is a saltmarsh of about 40 acres that has been designated as a natural area.


PLANT LIST:
Karl Anderson
August 24, 2002. 

*= blooming


There have been a lot of changes since the publication of Karl Anderson's article in Bartonia on the vegetation of Liberty State Park in 1989.  They have added a lot of buildings and a paved walkway.  They have also closed off a lot of the more natural areas (polluted by chromium from the metal plating industry that was here at one time).  As a result, we had much fewer areas from which to choose.  Before lunch we toured the roadsides, planted areas, and disturbed areas around the Interpretive Center.  After lunch we botanized in and around the old Blue Circle Atlantic Bay Cement company off of Burma Road and the blocked off road leading to the Interpretive Center.  Some of the most interesting plants were Cycloloma atriplicifolium (winged pigweed), Diplotaxis tenuifolia (slim-leaf sand rocket), Strophostyles helvula (trailing wild bean), and Verbascum phlomoides (clasping mullein).

Total attendance was 18.  Attendees included Dave Austin, Glen and Ania Boyd, Patrick and Rosemary Cooney, Boel Denne-Hinnov, Naomi Dicker, Judith Fitzgerald, DeeAnn Ipp, Linda Kelly, Joseph Labriola, Roberta Morgenstern, Wayne Morris, Sarah-David Rosenbaum, Nancy Seaton, and Bill and Eleanor Standaert. The trip leader was Karl Anderson.  


Trees:
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry)
Crataegus sp. (hawthorn)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash) planted
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
Morus alba (white mulberry)
Pinus thunbergii (black pine) planted
Platanus x hybrida (London plane tree) planted
Populus deltoides (cottonwood)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Pyrus calleryana (callery pear) planted
Rhus copallina (winged sumac)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Sophora japonica (Japanese scholar tree) planted

Shrubs:
Aronia sp. (hybrid chokeberry)
Baccharis halimifolia (groundsel bush)
Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush) planted *
Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) planted
Cornus kousa (kousa dogwood) planted
Forsythia intermedia (forsythia) planted
Ilex verticillata (winterberry) planted
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) planted
Myrica pensylvanica (bayberry)
Rosa rugosa (wrinkled rose)
Rubus laciniatus (evergreen blackberry)
Rubus sp. (blackberry)
Salix sp. (willow)
Viburnum lentago (nannyberry viburnum) planted

Vines:
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelain berry)
Campsis radicans (trumpet creeper) *
Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed) *
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) *
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Polygonum scandens (climbing bindweed)
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade)
Strophostyles helvula (trailing wild bean) *
Vitis riparia (river bank grape)
Vitis vulpina (frost grape)

Herbs:
Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf) *
Amaranthus albus (tumbleweed)
Amaranthus sp. (amaranth)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) *
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp)
Apocynum media (hybrid dogbane) *
Artemisia annua (annual wormwort)
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterflyweed) * planted
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster) *
Aster pilosus (aster) *
Aster racemosus (small-headed aster) *?
Atriplex patula (spearscale)
Bidens sp. (beggar ticks) *
Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) *
Chamaecrista nictitans (wild sensitive plant) *
Chenopodium botrys (Jerusalem oak) *
Chenopodium pumilio (pigweed) *
Cichorium intybus (chicory) *
Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) *
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) *
Conyza canadensis (horseweed) *
Coronilla varia (crown vetch) *
Coreopsis lanceolata (long-stalked tickseed) planted *
Cycloloma atriplicifolia (winged pigweed)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace) *
Desmodium canadense (showy tick trefoil) *
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink) *
Diplotaxis tenuifolia (slim-leaf sand rocket) *
Echium vulgare (viper's bugloss) *
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane) *
Eupatorium dubium (eastern Joe-Pye-weed) *
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot)
Eupatorium serotinum (late flowering boneset) *
Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge)
Euphorbia maculata (spotted spurge) *
Euphorbia nutans (upright spurge) *
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower) *
Heterotheca subaxillaris (camphorweed) *
Hosta sp. (hosta)
Hypericum perforatum (common st. johnswort)
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) *
Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce) *
Lespedeza capitata (round-headed bushclover)
Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs) *
Lotus corniculatus (birdfoot trefoil) *
Ludwigia palustris (marsh purslane)
Lycopus europaeus (European water horehound) *
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) *
Medicago lupulina (black medick) *
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover) *
Mollugo verticillata (carpetweed) *
Nepeta cataria (catnip)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose) *
Oxalis dilennii (yellow wood sorrel) *
Pastinaca sativa (wild parsnip)
Penstemon digitalis (foxglove beardtongue)
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) *
Polygonum aviculare (knotweed) *?
Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed)
Polygonum lapathifolium (nodding knotweed) *
Polygonum pensylvanicum (pink knotweed) *
Portulaca oleracea (portulaca)
Rorippa palustris (marsh yellowcress)
Salicornia europaea (European saltwort)
Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) *
Silene alba (white campion) *
Silene antirrhina (sleepy catchfly)
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle nightshade) *
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade) *
Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod) *
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod) *
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)
Sonchus oleraceus (common sow thistle)
Spergularia marina (salt marsh sand spurrey)
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) *
Trichostema dichotomum (blue curls) *
Trifolium repens (white clover) *
Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail)
Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein)
Verbascum phlomoides (clasping mullein) *
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) *
Verbena bracteata (bracted vervain) *
Verbena hastata (blue vervain) *
Xanthium strumarium (cocklebur)

Rushes:
Juncus effusus (soft rush)
Juncus sp. (rush)

Sedges:
Bulbostylis capillaris (hair-like sedge)
Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)
Eleocharis ovata (blunt-tipped spikerush)
Scirpus cyperinus (woolly grass bulrush)

Grasses:
Aristida oligantha (prairie three-awn grass)
Calamagrostis epigejos (feathertop grass)
Cenchrus longispinus (common sandbur)
Dactylis glomeratus (orchard grass)
Digitaria sanguinalis (hairy crab grass)
Echinochloa muricata (barnyard grass)
Eleusine indica (goose grass)
Eragrostis cilianensis (stink lovegrass)
Eragrostis curvula (South African weeping lovegrass)
Eragrostis pectinacea (Carolina lovegrass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass)
Festuca sp. (fescue grass)
Hordeum sp. (hordeum grass)
Leptochloa fascicularis (sprangletop)
Lolium perenne (ryegrass)
Panicum amarulum (panic grass) ?
Panicum dichotomiflorum (fall panic grass)
Panicum virgatum (switch panic grass)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Setaria viridis (green foxtail grass)


PLANT LIST:
Karl Anderson; 8 trips inclusive


Trees:
Acer negundo (box elder maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)
Alnus glutinosa (black alder)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)
Morus alba (white mulberry)
Paulownia tomentosa (empress tree)
Populus alba (white poplar)
Populus deltoides (cottonwood)
Populus grandidentata (large-toothed aspen)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus pensylvanica (pin cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Pyrus malus (apple)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Rhamnus frangula (European buckthorn)
Rhus copallina (winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Salix babylonica (weeping willow)
Salix nigra (black willow)

Shrubs:
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo)
Baccharis halimifolia (groundsel bush)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)
Iva frutescens (marsh elder)
Myrica pensylvanica (bayberry)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
Rubus idaeus (red raspberry)
Rubus laciniatus (evergreen blackberry)
Rubus pensilvanicus (Pennsylvania blackberry)
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Sambucus canadensis (common elderberry)
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush)

Vines:
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelain berry)
Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed)
Cuscuta gronovii (common dodder)
Hibiscus trionum (flower of an hour)
Humulus japonicus (Japanese hops)
Ipomoea hederacea (ivy-leaved morning glory)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Polygonum scandens (climbing bindweed)
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vitis vulpina (frost grape)

Herbs:
Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf)
Acalypha rhomboidea (three-seeded mercury)
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)
Alisma plantago-aquatica var. parviflorum
Alisma subcordatum (southern water plantain)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)
Amaranthus albus (tumbleweed)
Amaranthus cannabinus (salt marsh water hemp)
Amaranthus retroflexus (rough pigweed)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)
Anaphalis margaritacea (1985) (pearly everlasting)
Anthemis arvensis (corn chamomile)
Anthemis cotula (dogfennel chamomile)
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp)
Arabidopsis thaliana (mouse-ear cress)
Aralia hispida (bristly sarsaparilla)
Arctium minus (lesser burdock )
Arenaria serpyllifolia (thyme-leaved sandwort)
Artemisia annua (annual wormwort)
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Aster lanceolatus (panicled aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster pilosus (aster)
Aster racemosus (small-headed aster)
Aster subulatus (annual salt marsh aster)
Atriplex patula (spearscale)
Barbarea vulgaris (common wintercress)
Bassia hyssopifolia (bassia)
Berteroa incana (hoary alyssum)
Bidens connata (swamp beggar ticks)
Bidens frondosa (devil's beggar ticks)
Bidens polylepis (beggar ticks)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)
Cakile edentula (sea rocket)
Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)
Centaurea dubia (short-fringed knapweed)
Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed)
Centaurium pulchellum (branching centaury)
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed)
Chamaecrista fasciculata (partridge pea)
Chenopodium album (pigweed)
Chenopodium ambrosioides (Mexican tea)
Chenopodium botrys (Jerusalem oak)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy)
Cichorium intybus (chicory)
Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle)
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle)
Commelina communis (Asiatic dayflower)
Conyza canadensis (horseweed)
Coronilla varia (crown vetch)
Coreopsis lanceolata (long-stalked tickseed)
Cycloloma atriplicifolium (winged pigweed)
Datura stramonium (jimson weed)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace)
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink)
Diodea teres (buttonweed)
Diplotaxis tenuifolia (slim-leaf sand rocket) Brassicaceae   
Dipsacus sylvestris (teasel)
Echium vulgare (viper's bugloss)
Epilobium coloratum (purple-leaved willowherb)
Epilobium hirsutum (hairy willowherb)
Erechtites hieraciifolia (horseweed)
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane)
Erigeron philadelphicus (common fleabane)
Erodium cicutarium (stork's bill)
Erysimum repandum (treacle mustard)
Eupatorium altissimum (tall boneset)
Eupatorium dubium (eastern Joe-Pye-weed)
Eupatorium hyssopifolium (hyssop-leaved boneset)
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot)
Eupatorium rotundifolium (pilosum) (round-leaved boneset)
Eupatorium serotinum (late-flowering boneset)
Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge)
Euphorbia maculata (spotted spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Froelichia gracilis (cottonweed)
Galinsoga quadriradiata (common quickweed)
Galium mollugo (wild madder)
Geranium carolinianum (Carolina geranium)
Glechoma hederacea (gill over the ground)
Gnaphalium obtusifolium (sweet everlasting)
Hedeoma pulegioides (American pennyroyal)
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower)
Heliotropium curassavicum (seaside eliotrope) Boraginaceae -- sub-tropical Am.
Hemerocallis fulva (tawny day flower)
Heterotheca subaxillaris (camphorweed)
Hibiscus moscheutos (swamp rose mallow)
Hieracium caespitosum (field hawkweed)
Hieracium pilosella (mouse ear hawkweed)
Hieracium sabaudum (savory hawkweed)
Hypericum gentianoides (orange grass)
Hypericum mutilum (dwarf St. Johnswort)
Hypericum perforatum (common St. Johnswort)
Hypochaeris radicata (cat's ear)
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed)
Inula graveolens (stink-aster)
Kickxia elatine (cancerroot)
Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce)
Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce)
Lamium amplexicaule (henbit)
Lamium purpureum (purple dead nettle)
Lathyrus latifolius (everlasting pea)
Lemna minor (lesser duckweed)
Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort)
Lepidium campestre (field peppergrass)
Lespedeza repens (smooth trailing bushclover)
Linaria canadensis (blue toadflax)
Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs)
Lindernia dubia (false pimpernel)
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco)
Lotus corniculatus (birdfoot trefoil)
Ludwigia palustris (marsh purslane)
Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato)
Lycopus americanus (American water horehound)
Lycopus europaeus (European water horehound)
Lycopus uniflorus (northern water horehound)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)
Malva neglecta (common mallow)
Medicago lupulina (black medick)
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover)
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)
Mirabilis nyctaginea (wild four o'clock)
Mollugo verticillata (carpetweed)
Nepeta cataria (catnip)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Oxalis stricta (yellow wood sorrel)
Pastinaca sativa (wild parsnip)
Penstemon digitalis (1985) (foxglove beardtongue)
Petunia violacea (petunia)
Physalis longifolia (long-leaved ground cherry)
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)
Plantago aristata (bracted plantain)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain)
Plantago major (common plantain)
Pluchea odorata (marsh fleabane)
Polanisia dodecandra (clammy weed)
Polygonella articulata (sand jointweed)
Polygonum aviculare (knotweed)
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose knotweed)
Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed)
Polygonum hydropiperoides (mild water pepper smartweed)
Polygonum lapathifolium (nodding knotweed)
Polygonum pensylvanicum (pink knotweed)
Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb knotweed)
Polygonum punctatum (spotted knotweed)
Polygonum tenue (slender knotweed)
Portulaca oleracea (common purslane)
Portulaca grandiflora (large-flowered purslane)
Potentilla argentea (silvery cinquefoil)
Potentilla norvegica (rough cinquefoil)
Potentilla recta (rough-fruited cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal)
Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)
Rorippa palustris (marsh yellowcress)
Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima (black-eyed Susan)
Rumex acetosella (field sorrel)
Rumex crispus (curled dock)
Rumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)
Rumex patientia (patience dock)
Sabatia stellaris (1985) (annual marsh pink)
Sagittaria latifolia (broad-leaved arrowhead)
Salicornia europaea (European saltwort)
Salsola kali (common saltwort)
Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet)
Scleranthus annuus (knawel)
Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel)
Silene latifolia (white campion)
Silene antirrhina (sleepy catchfly)
Silene vulgaris (bladder campion)
Sisymbrium altissimum (tumble mustard)
Sisyrinchium atlanticum (blue-eyed grass)
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle nightshade)
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)
Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-stemmed goldenrod)
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)
Sonchus oleraceus (common sow thistle)
Spergularia marina (salt marsh sand spurrey)
Spiranthes cernua (nodding lady's tresses)
Stellaria media (common chickweed)
Suaeda linearis (southern seablite)
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion)
Tradescantia virginiana (Virginia spiderwort)
Trichostema dichotomum (blue curls)
Trifolium arvense (rabbit foot clover)
Trifolium campestre (pinnate hop clover)
Trifolium dubium (least hop clover)
Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover)
Trifolium pratense (red clover)
Trifolium repens (white clover)
Triodanis perfoliata (Venus's looking glass)
Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail)
Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail)
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle)
Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein)
Verbascum phlomoides (clasping mullein)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)
Verbena bracteata (bracted vervain)
Verbena hastata (blue vervain)
Verbena simplex (narrow-leaved vervain)
Verbena stricta (hoary vervain)
Verbena urticifolia (white vervain)
Veronica arvensis (corn speedwell)
Veronica peregrina (purslane speedwell)
Viola arvensis (European field pansy violet)
Xanthium strumarium (cocklebur)
Yucca filamentosa (yucca)

Rushes:
Juncus acuminatus (acuminate rush)
Juncus effusus (soft rush)
Juncus gerardii (blackgrass rush)
Juncus tenuis (path rush)
Juncus torreyi (Torrey's rush)


Sedges:
Bulbostylis capillaris (hair-like sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex straminea (straw sedge)
Carex vulpinoidea (fox sedge)
Carex vulpinoidea var. annectens (sedge)
Cyperus bipartitus (nutsedge)
Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge)
Cyperus filicinus (fern-like nutsedge)
Cyperus grayi (Gray's nutsedge)
Cyperus strigosus (strigose nutsedge)
Eleocharis ovata (blunt-tipped spikerush)
Eleocharis palustris (marsh spikerush)
Eleocharis parvula (spikerush)
Scirpus americanus (Olney three-square bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (woolly grass bulrush)
Scirpus pungens (common three-square bulrush)

Grasses:
Agrostis hyemalis (tickle grass)
Agrostis stolonifera (creeping bentgrass)
Ammophila breviligulata (beach grass)
Andropogon virginicus (Virginia broom grass)
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass)
Apera interrupta (Agrostis interrupta) (grass)
Aristida dichotoma (church mouse three-awn grass)
Aristida oligantha (prairie three-awn grass)
Bromus japonicus (Japanese brome grass)
Bromus tectorum (downy chess brome grass)
Calamagrostis epigejos (feathertop grass)
Cenchrus longispinus (common sandbur)
Dactylis glomeratus (orchard grass)
Digitaria ischaemum (smooth crab grass)
Digitaria sanguinalis (hairy crab grass)
Distichlis spicata (salt grass)
Draba verna (whitlow grass)
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)
Echinochloa walteri (Walter's barnyard grass)
Eleusine indica (goose grass)
Eragrostis cilianensis (stink lovegrass)
Eragrostis curvula (South African weeping lovegrass)
Eragrostis pectinacea (Carolina lovegrass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple lovegrass)
Festuca elatior (tall fescue grass)
Festuca ovina (sheep fescue grass)
Festuca rubra (red fescue grass)
Holcus lanatus (velvet grass)
Hordeum jubatum (squirrel grass)
Lolium perenne (ryegrass)
Lolium perenne var. aristatum (Italian ryegrass)
Panicum capillare (witch panic grass)
Panicum dichotomiflorum (fall panic grass)
Panicum lanuginosum (woolly panic grass)
Panicum virgatum (switch panic grass)
Panicum verrucosum (warty panic grass)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Poa annua (annual bluegrass)
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)
Poa trivialis (rough-stalked bluegrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem grass)
Setaria faberi (Faber's foxtail grass)
Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail grass)
Setaria viridis (green foxtail grass)
Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh hay cordgrass)
Spartina patens (salt meadow cordgrass)
Sporobolus vaginiflorus (poverty dropseed grass)
Tridens flavus (purple top grass)
Vulpia myuros (rat-tail fescue grass)

Ferns and Fern Allies:
Equisetum arvense (field horsetail)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Thelypteris palustris (marsh beech fern)


Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. (wall rocket): a yellow Europeran flower that is an adventive weed in the United States; 10-15" high; a diploid and perennial species, in the sense that the roots can survive winters and produce new sprouts in the next spring; it flowers from late spring to autumn and its seeds are generally ready for collecting in autumn; well adapted to harsh and poor soils; its succulent leaves are used in cuisine. It has a pungent taste.  In some Italian areas D. tenuifolia is also cultivated, but it is mostly collected from the wild and sold in small bunches in local markets