GREENBROOK SANCTUARY
Bergen County, NJ


Directions:

by bus: Red and Tan bus 9A leaves at 9:10 a.m. from platform 22 of Geroge Washington Bridge Terminal. Get off at Greenbrook stop. Walk to entrance gate. This road goes under the Palisades Interstate Parkway into the park, which is usually closed and gated.

by car: from the George Washington Bridge take the Palisades Interstate Parkway to exit 1. Make a right onto Route 9W north. Entrance to Greenbrook is one mile north of East Clinton Avenue. Make first right after traffic light at Clinton Avenue (look for a seemingly hidden pull-off road on the right, east side).


History:

One of the tow first areas acquired by the Park on tolp of the palisades in New Jersey (the other the Women's Federation Park in Alpine, 1909). Greenbrook comprised 165 acres in Tenafly and Alpine. The park acquired this area in 1917. There were plants to develop it into a major recreational center.

In 1933 the southern end of the area was used by the Civilian Conservation Corps which woked below the cliffs to stop erosion on the talus slopes). The southern end was also used by the Army following World War II as a bomb demolition center. (Serrao 1986:28-29)

In 1946 the Greenbrook Sanctuary was developed as a nature preserve.


PLANT LIST:
Nancy Slowik

July 20, 96 Greenbrook Sanctuary, on Palisades, Tenafly, Bergen Co., N.J.
Torrey Botanical Society trip. With Nancy Slowik (leader).
Nomenclature follows Gleason & Cronquist (1991). Common names from various sources.
var. ... = unspecified variety. (Vars. listed in Gleason & Cronquist do not match Kartesz's interpretation.)
F Flowering specimen(s) found.
Fr Fruiting specimen(s) found.
Many species have been planted here by garden clubs over the years.
[C.] Cultivated species. Planted, non-native or native but out of habitat.
[E.] Escaped from cultivation. Established on its own, but not a native (or long-naturalized) species.
[P.] Planted and established. Native species, but not a natural population here.


Trees:
Acer rubrum (red maple) some
Acer saccharum (sugar maple) some
Ailanthus altissima (tree of heaven) some
Amelanchier sp. (laevis?) (shadbush) 1
Aralia spinosa (Hercules' club) few
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) few
Betula lenta (black birch) common
Betula populifolia (gray birch) few
Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory) 1
Carya glabra (pignut hickory) some
Celtis occidentalis (American hackberry) few
Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar) 1
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) some
Fagus grandifolia (American beech) few
Fraxinus americana (white ash) some
Ilex opaca (American holly) few
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar) few
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum) some
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree) common
Morus alba (white mulberry) 1
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo) some
Paulownia tomentosa (empress tree) 1
Pinus resinosa (red pine) 1
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) few
Populus grandidentata (big-toothed Aspen) few
Prunus serotina (black cherry) few
Quercus alba (white oak) some
Quercus palustris (pin oak) few
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak) some
Quercus rubra (red oak) common
Sassafras albidum (sassafras) few
Sorbus aucuparia (European mountain-ash) 1
Tilia americana (American basswood) some
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) few
Ulmus americana (American elm) some
Ulmus rubra? (slippery elm) 1 sapling, entrance road

Shrubs:
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder) some
Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry) 2
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush) common 7/20/96 soon
Comptonia peregrina (sweetfern) few
Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood) 7/20/96 soon; some
Corylus americana (American hazel) 1
Crataegus sp. (hawthorn) few
Decodon verticillatus (swamp loosestrife) some
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) 1
Eubotrys racemosa (fetterbush) few
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus) 1
Hamamelis virginiana (witch-hazel ) 10/15/97; common
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel) few
Lindera benzoin (spicebush) common
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry) 7/20/96 few
Myrica pensylvanica (bayberry) few
Pachysandra terminalis (pachysandra) 1 large patch
Rhamnus frangula (European buckthorn) common
Rhododendron maximum (rosebay rhododendron)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pinxter flower) few
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea) 1
Rhus copallinum (winged sumac) few
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac) some
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) few
Rosa carolina (Carolina Rose) 7/20/96 few
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose) few
Rubus hispidus (swamp dewberry) some
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry) 1
Rubus odoratus (flowering raspberry) 1
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry) some
Rubus sp. (blackberry) few
Salix sp. (willow) 1
Salix sp. (sericea?) (silky willow?) 1
Sambucus canadensis (common elderberry) few
Spiraea alba var. latifolia (meadowsweet) 7/20/96 few
Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush) some
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut) few
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry) some
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) some
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry) some
Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry) few
Viburnum acerifolium (maple-leaved viburnum) common
Viburnum dentatum var. dentatum (arrowwood viburnum) some
Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum (arrowwood viburnum) some
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum) few

Vines:
Apios americana (ground nut) few
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet) common
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush) common
Chamaedaphne calyculata (leatherleaf) some
Cuscuta sp. (dodder) few
Dioscorea villosa var. villosa (wild yamroot) few sites
Lonicera dioica (wild honeysuckle) 1 clump
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) few
Lonicera sempervirens (trumpet honeysuckle) 7/20/96 1 clump
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper) some
Polygonum scandens (climbing false buckwheat) some
Smilax rotundifolia (round-leaved greenbrier) 1
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy) common
Vitis aestivalis (var. aestivalis?) Summer Grape common
Vitis labrusca (fox grape) common

Herbs:
Acalypha rhomboidea (three-seeded mercury) some
Achillea millefolium ssp. lanulosa (yarrow few
Achillea millefolium ssp. millefolium (yarrow) 7/20/96 few
Agastache scrophulariaefolia (purple giant-hyssop) 7/20/96 1
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) 7/20/96 some
Amaranthus sp. (amaranth) 2
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) few
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane) 7/20/96 some
Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla) common
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit) few
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort) few
Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed) few
Asclepias incarnata var. pulchra (swamp milkweed) 7/20/96 soon; 1
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) few
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed) 7/20/96 1
Aster cordifolius (heart-leaved aster) 10/15/97; common
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster) 10/15/97; common
Aster lanceolatus var. simplex (aster) 10/15/97; some
Aster lateriflorus (var. hirsuticaulis?) (aster) 10/15/97; some
Aster patens var. patens (clasping aster) 1 patch
Aster paternus (white-topped aster) 7/20/96 2
Aster pilosus var. pringlei (aster) 10/15/97; few, roadside
Aster schreberi (Schreber's aster) 7/20/96 1 patch
Aster undulatus (aster) 10/15/97; 1
Aureolaria flava var. flava (false foxglove) some
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) 7/20/96 common
Circaea lutetiana var. canadensis (enchanter's nightshade) abundant
Cirsium discolor (field thistle) few
Collinsonia canadensis (horsebalm) some
Commelina communis (dayflower) 7/20/96 10/15/97; some
Desmodium glabellum (tick trefoil) some
Desmodium paniculatum (tick trefoil) 1
Erechtites hieraciifolia (pilewort) 1
Erigeron annuus (annual fleabane) 7/20/96 10/15/97 1
Eupatorium fistulosum (Joe-Pye-weed) 7/20/96 few
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset) 1
Eupatorium purpureum (joe-pye-weed) 7/20/96 soon; some
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot ) 10/15/97 common
Euphorbia maculata (spotted spurge) few
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod) 1 clump
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry) few
Galium spp. (bedstraws) few
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) some
Glechoma hederacea (gill-over-the-ground) some
Helenium autumnale (sneezeweed ) 10/15/97 1
Hosta ventricosa (plantain-lily) 7/20/96; 1 large patch
Hypericum punctatum (spotted St. Johnswort) 7/20/96; 2
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) 7/20/96 common
Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce) 7/20/96; 1 clump
Lapsana communis (nipplewort ) 10/15/97 soon; 1
Lepidium virginicum (poor man's pepper) few
Lespedeza capitata (bushclover) 1
Lespedeza hirta (hairy bushclover) few
Linaria vulgaris (butter-and-eggs) 7/20/96 10/15/97; few
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco) few
Ludwigia palustris (marsh purslane) some
Ludwigia sp. (alternifolia?) (water primrose) 1
Lycopus americanus (American bugleweed) 7/20/96; few
Lycopus virginicus (Virginia water horehound) few
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife) 7/20/96; some
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife) some
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) few
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower) some
Medicago lupulina (black medick) 7/20/96; 1
Menyanthes trifoliata (buckbean) some
Monarda didyma (Oswego tea) 7/20/96; 1 clump
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot) 7/20/96 10/15/97; few
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe) some
Nymphaea odorata (fragrant white water lily) few
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose) some
Osmorhiza claytonii (sweet cicely) few
Oxalis stricta (yellow wood sorrel) 7/20/96; few
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) few
Plantago major (common plantain) some
Podophyllum peltatum (mayapple) 7/20/96 few
Polygonatum biflorum (smooth Solomon's seal) few
Polygonatum pubescens (hairy Solomon's seal) few
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed) 7/20/96 few
Polygonum cespitosum var. longisetum (smartweed) 7/20/96 10/15/97; some
Polygonum lapathifolium (nodding smartweed) 7/20/96; 1
Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb) few
Polygonum virginianum (jumpseed) some
Pontederia cordata (pickerel-weed) 7/20/96; 1
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil) few
Prenanthes sp. (lettuce) few
Proserpinaca palustris (var. crebra?)? (mermaidweed) 1 patch
Prunella vulgaris var. lanceolata (self-heal) 7/20/96; some
Pycnanthemum incanum (mountain mint) 7/20/96; some
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (mountain mint) 7/20/96; some
Ranunculus acris (tall buttercup) 7/20/96; few
Ranunculus recurvatus (hooked buttercup) 3
Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima (black-eyed Susan ) 10/15/97; 2
Rudbeckia laciniata (cutleaf coneflower) 7/20/96; some
Rumex obtusifolius (bitter dock) some
Sagittaria sp. (arrowhead) few
Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) 10/15/97; 1
Sarracenia purpurea (purple pitcher plant) 2
Scutellaria lateriflora (mad-dog skullcap) few
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal) some
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle) some
Solidago bicolor (silverrod ) 10/15/97; some
Solidago caesia (blue-stem goldenrod ) 10/15/97 common
Solidago canadensis var. scabra (goldenrod) common
Solidago gigantea (tall goldenrod) some, 2 sites
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod) some
Solidago odora (licorice goldenrod) few
Solidago rigida (stiff goldenrod) 1
Solidago rugosa (rough-stemmed goldenrod) few
Sparganium sp. (americanum?) (burreed) 7/20/96; few
Stellaria media (common chickweed) some
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage) few
Tiarella cordifolia (foam flower) 1 large patch
Triadenum virginicum (marsh St. Johnswort) some
Trifolium repens (white clover) 7/20/96; some
Trillium erectum (purple trillium) 1
Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail) few
Uvularia sessilifolia (sessile-leaved bellwort) few
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) few
Verbena hastata (blue vervain) 1
Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) 2
Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed) few
Viola cucullata? (marsh blue violet) 1 patch
Viola sororia? (common blue violet) common

Rushes:
Juncus tenuis (path rush) common
Luzula multiflora (woodrush) 1

Sedges:
Carex stricta (tussock sedge) 1 clump

Grasses:
Cinna arundinacea (woodreed) 1 patch
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass) few
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass) 1
Lolium perenne var. perenne (perennial rye grass) few
Muhlenbergia schreberi (nimblewill) some, 1 site
Panicum clandestinum (deer-tongue panic grass) some
Panicum latifolium (panic grass) some, 1 site
Panicum virgatum (switch grass) 2 clumps
Poa annua (annual bluegrass) some
Setaria faberi (nodding foxtail grass) few
Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail grass) 1 clump
Tridens flavus (purpletop grass) 1 site

Ferns:
Athyrium filix-femina (northern lady fern) some
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern) common
Dryopteris clintoniana (Clinton's woodfern) 1
Dryopteris intermedia (evergreen woodfern) few
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal woodfern) few
Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern) few
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern) some
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern) some
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern) some
Osmunda regalis (royal fern) some
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern) common
Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern) some


Torrey Botanical Trip Reports

PALISADES, BUTTERMILK FALLS;  Greenbrook (née "Buttermilk") Falls


April 21, 1929

nineteen members of the club and friend met at the Dyckman Street Ferry for a trip along the Palisades, in spite of threats of rain. . . .

Along the slopes:
rue anemone
blood root
Dutchman's breeches
wild strawberry
chickweed
Equisetum arvense abundant
Equisetum hyemale the stems, some of them over three feet long, all of the previous summer
cherry trees were in blossom
forsythia in bloom
Japanese barberry in bloom
Japanese quince in bloom
peace trees in bloom

Lunch was eaten below Buttermilk Falls, Against the sides of the cliff several shrubs of shadbush were in bloom. After a short time spent in studying rocks, the party climbed to the top along a long disused road. After wandering through the oak woods the party walked around the depression known as the Keldars. Along the sides of the swamp that fills the Keldars and by the brook which makes the falls, below which lunch had been eaten, spring beauties and dogtooth violets were in blossom, though nodding their heads and half closed because of the lack of sunshine. A few blue violets and one patch of white were found in the damp ground and some of the downy yellow violet in the drier woods. The unfolding plicate leaves of the white hellebore were in sharp contrast with the half developed skunk cabbage. Cinnamon, interrupted, and royal ferns were found unrolling their fronds. In the water were several clumps of golden club, Orontium aquaticum, the yellow spikes of flower showing for an inch and a half or two inches above the water. This was the only uncommon flower found. In the swamp of the keldars the heart-leaved willow were in blossom, both the staminate and pistillate.

The members of the party also enjoyed the abundant bird life . . .

George T. Hastings, leader
p. 74


March 9, 1930

On the ferry over from Inwood the golden disks of Tussilago farfara were in great profusion greeted us upon our arrival at the Palisades.

Stellaria media in bloom formed carpeted mats in still greater abundance. Elms were in full bloom, flower buds swelling on Acer rubrum and Sassafras variifolium, and every indication of an early spring was at hand. Those who had come to collect specimens were delighted to find the large stand of Equisetum hyemale var. affine with newly formed strobili. Geranium robertianum was freshly green in the interstices of the rocks, and "escapes" told the tale of former habitations: Hemerocallis fulva and Ornithogalum umbellatum pushing their way up; and further along Philadelphus coronarius, Viburnum opulus, probably var. americanum, V acerifolium, and V prunifolium still bore last year's fruit. The vivid pistillate flowers of Corylus americana were in their prime, and buds of Staphylea trifolia were showing signs of Spring along with Sambucus racemosa.

Buttermilk Falls of Green Brook made an impressive sight, bordered with ice, and had developed a flourishing colony of Conocephalum conicum on its flank.

Helene Lunt


April 6, 1930

A party of 34 members and friends of the club started north from the Dyckman Street ferry along the Palisades. Near the ferry house the party stopped to examine the patch of coltsfoot that had been found in blossom on the trip of March 9th. The month that had elapsed seemed to have made little difference in the appearance of the plant, which were about the same number of open flower heads, but no sign of any in fruit. Along the path there was a more noticeable change, the elms and alders that had been in full bloom had now past the blossoming season, red maples that had not shown flowers before were now in their prime. A few hepaticas were found in blossom and Dutchman's breeches was abundant on the hillsides, some fully out, but mostly with the flower buds only half open. A patch of periwinkle, Vinca minor, showed its violet blossoms half hidden among the evergreen leaves. This and a few gnarled apple trees marked the location of a home of long ago.

Near Buttermilk Falls the party climbed to the top along a long disused road, stopping to note the flower buds of the red-berried elder, the opening leaf buds of the bladder nut and the vines of the moonseed, Menispermum. Search along the brook at the top failed to reveal any of the golden club, Orontium aquatica, in blossom, though a few leaves had reached the surface and some of the flower spikes were showing below.

Back in the kelders the heart-leafed willow was just coming into bloom while Salix discolor was past its prime. Two shrubs, apparently of discolor were found with the flowers showing all stages of transition from staminate to pistillate. Evidently staminate plants, every catkin had some flower with stamens transformed into pistils. Dissection with a pen knife showed ovules in these ovaries while the stamens were all shedding pollen. The accompanying sketches show some of the many forms, the long silky hairs of the scales being omitted in all but the first.

As the party descended the broken edge of the Palisades above Alpine the rock cress, Arabis lyrata, showed masses of white flowers in the crevices of the rocks, while numerous plants of the sickle pod, A canadensis, had clusters of flower buds down close to the leaves. In a hedge along the road above the Palisades one of the party stopped to examine an old bird's nest, finding in it two eggs, one evidently that of the builder of the nest, a chipping sparrow, though the egg was bleached white, the other a cow bird's. Few birds were seen, the ones most worthy of note being a few phoebes and a small flock of fox sparrows.

George T. Hastings