WILDCAT RIDGE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA

HIBERNIA, MORRIS COUNTY, NJ.

The Hibernia Mine here is New Jersey's largest known bat hibernaculum with some 26,000 bats.


Directions:

There are several trails beginning near the mine parking area that lead to the ridge and the upper portion of the property.

But we will drive to the trailhead for Beaver Pond Trail and the Overlook Trail (from where we can see a breathtaking view of the Highlands and, on a clear day, the New York City skyline). From Interstate 80, take Exit 37. Travel north on County Route 513 toward Hibernia for 2.8 miles. Turn right on Sunnyside Road. The parking area is almost immediately on the left.

For the Beaver Pond Trailhead: Continue north on CR 513 for another 3.7 miles. Turn right on Upper Hibernia Road and proceed 2.6 miles to the parking area on the left.

(For maps see: www.state.nj.us/dep/fgw/wmaland.htm)


Geology:

Rt. 513 north off or Route 80 goes through a valley between mountains on both sides.


History:

1722 -- The Hibernia Mine was first worked as early as 1722. The "Adventure Furnace," later to become the Hibernia Furnace, supplied shot and ordnance for the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. For nearly two centuries, a series of mines and trenches, collectively known as the Hibernia Mine, produced over five million tons of magnetite ore. During the mine's long history, a total of 12 vertical shafts would eventually be sunk, two to depths of 1,600 and 2,800 feet. The deeper shafts provided as many as 26 underground working levels.

1763 or 1764 -- Samuel Ford (a nephew of Col. Jacob Ford, Sr.) erects a furnace on the Whippany River (about 4 miles north of Rockaway).

1765 -- a deed for a piece of land in the vicinity says the land is 3/4s of a mile above the new Furnace, called "The Adventure," the early name of Hibernia Furnace.

1765 -- Ford sales one-third each to James Anderson of Sussex County and Benjamin Cooper.

1767 -- the last third interest purchased by Lord Sterling.

1768 -- Ford and Cooper participate in the robbery of the Treasury of East Jersey at Amboy. All escape punishment.

1771 -- Anderson & Cooper sell their interest in the Hibernia Company to Lord Sterling.

1774 -- Joseph Hoff (a brother-in-law of Benjamin Cooper) from Hunterdon County to take charge of the Hibernia Works.

1776 -- New York agents were Robert and John Murray. The works get orders for casting cannon. Its big product was pig iron and it supplied these to many of the forges in Morris County.

1777 -- Charles Hoff, Jr. (brother of Joseph) succeeds as manager.

1778 -- George Taylor of Durham Furnace visits Hibernia.

1781 -- Charles Hoff, Jr. heads off to Mount Pleasant (where he died in 1811).

Lord Sterling (William Alexander) was the son of the Surveyor General of NJ and one of the most prominent lawyers in NJ. He lost everything: money, estate, property.

1782-1785 -- title to the property is in the name of George Ross, a prominent citizen of Elizabethtown.

1783 -- Lord Sterling dies.

1785-1792 -- Benjamin Thompson, John Murray of Murray Samson & Co., John Stotesbury, and Lemuel Cobb connected to Hibernia Iron Works.

1786-1796 -- John Stotesbury & Co are owners of the furnace.

1795 -- the furnace disappears from the tax bills after this year.

1798 -- Stotesbury fails. Dr. Charles M. Graham of New York rebuilds the plant.

1815 -- Graham turns it over to Samuel and Peter Thompson and William Spencer.

Furnace goes out of blast.

1821 -- Graham transfers what was left to William Scott; he builds a forge near the furnace dam, known as Hibernia Forge and operated it for 10-12 years (until a flood swept away part of the dam and forge).

1913 -- Hibernia was still the fourth largest ore producer in the state when it was abandoned in 1913.

Info from:By Rick Dutko http://www.batcon.org/batsmag/v12n3-1.html and Charles S. Boyer, 1931, Early Forges & Furnaces in NJ. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

On June 22, 2000, the Green Acres Program, along with the Trust for Public Land, Morris County, Rockaway Township, the Forest Legacy Program and the Land and Water Conservation Fund preserved 295 acres of land adjacent to the State's 2,662 acre Wildcat Ridge Wildlife Management Area. Situated in the state's Highlands region, the newly protected land begins the development of connections to the Farny Highlands Trail Network, a 37-mile trail system linking public lands throughout Morris County.

The Brown tract was identified as one of the largest, most developable tracts in the area in Rockaway Township's Open Space Master Plan, which ranked it the number one priority for protection. The project site had received preliminary subdivision approval for a single-family residential subdivision containing 108 building lots; without this acquisition, the property would have been developed. Acquisition of the tract is important for the protection from development it affords the Beaver Brook watershed, a sub-watershed of the Rockaway River watershed.

Two additional parcels, the former Gruener and ATC Tower properties were added to Wildcat Ridge, the latter of which includes the Wildcat Ridge Hawkwatch.
(Source: http://www.state.nj.us/dep/greenacres/meriden.htm)

  • According to the Highlands Coalition News from ANJEC Winter 2001, two parcels were added to Wildcat Ridge State WMA: the 100-acre Johnson Woods tract and the 62-acre Koehler Family Trust property are both in Rockaway Twp.

    In February 2000, Upper Rockaway River Watershed Association alerted the Highlands Coalition and NJ Conservation Foundation about a proposed Johnson Woods subdivision. The Coalition advocated preservation of the tract before the Rockaway Planning Board.

    Trust for Public Land purchased Johnson Woods with help from the Doris Duke Foundation, NJ Conservation Foundation, NJDEP Green Acres, and a bargain sale by the owner. The tract has extensive wetlands near Lake Denmark and abuts Green Acres land on three sides. It is within the most biologically significant region of the Farny Highlands. The parcel also provides a substantial buffer along Patriot's Path and access to the Farny Highlands Trail Network.

    Morris Land Conservancy, partnering with the Conservation Fund, preserved the Koehler parcel, steeped in iron history and near pristine Splitrock Reservoir, and donated it to the State.

    (Source: http://www.highlandscoalition.org/Newsletters/higrwi01.html )

  • 100-acre purchase, Rockaway Twp., added to Wildcat Ridge Wildlife Mgt. Area; funding from NJDEP Green Acres, Morris Co. Open Space and Farmland Preservation Trust Fund, Rockaway Twp., and MLC.  (Source: The Highlands Coalition’s quarterly newsletter "High Grounds" Winter 2002 published by the Association of New Jersey Environmental Commissions (ANJEC); http://www.highlandscoalition.org/highground.htm)


    The Orr Brothers traveled from Green Pond down the southwest side of Copperas Mountain to the valley below. A drive of 4 or 5 miles brought the party the area of the Hibernia mines. Lord Stirling during the Revolutionary war worked the forge that was here. Many of the Hessian prisoners taken at Trenton were employed in making cannon balls.

    Hibernia or Adventure Furnace and Forge

    It was reported that ore was mined from the Hibernia deposit as early as 1722.

    Samuel Ford in 1763 or 1764 erected a furnace on the Whippany River, about four miles north of Rockaway. In a deed dated November 23, 1765, a small tract of land is described as about three quarters of a mile above the new Furnace called "The Adventure," the early name given to the Hibernia Furnace.

    In 1765 the "Adventure Furnace", after known as the Hibernia Furnace was built at Hibernia and supplied shot and ordnance for the Continentals during the Revolutionary War.

    In 1765, Ford, who was a nephew of Colonel Jacob Ford Sr., and his wife sold "an equal and undivided third of the Hibernia Iron Works to each of two purchasers, James Anderson Sussex County and Benjamin Cooper," trading as Anderson and Cooper. Two years later the other third interest was purchased from Ford by Lord Sterling. A letter to him from Garret Rapalje, dated New York, March 30, 1767, says:

    I congratulate you on purchasing part of the Hibernia Iron Works, and return you thanks for your kind offer, but at present [it] don't suit me as I have large sums due to me in the country which I must endeavor to collect to pay my debts, or should be very glad to join your Lordship. But if agreeable, will purchase all you pigs, if they prove as good as what have been made I will take all you can make for 3 to 5 ears, at 6 pounds per ton, prc., and settle accounts every 6 months, but would have all or none - as last fall Mr. Cooper engaged 50 tons to me, or 100, if could be made, and sold half to other people. And if I can be supplied with pigs from your Works shall not take any from Hanover, as I contracted with Colonel Hackett a few days before he died for 300 tons a year, which Messrs. Turner and Allen would rather not agree to our contract.

    After these sales, Ford devoted his time and energies to the business of counterfeiting "Jersey bills of credit," and in 1768 participated in the robbery of the Treasury of East Jersey at Amboy. His former partner, Cooper, was one of his associates. Ford was arrested in 1773, but escaped to Virginia. Cooper and some others were arrested, tried and convicted, but with one exception all escaped punishment. Anderson and Cooper sold their interests in the Hibernia Company during the year of 1771 to Lord Sterling. Several tracts of land in the vicinity of Hibernia had already been acquired by Sterling, as shown by deeds dated in 1763, 1766, 1768, and 1769. He was therefore entirely familiar with the local situation when he first entered the Hibernia Company.

    One of the greatest difficulties which the early ironmasters had to combat was dissipation among the workmen. To overcome this the Legislature in 1769 passed a law giving the owners, managers, or clerks, authority to sell to any employees of the Hibernia Works such quantities of rum or other strong liquor as they might from experience find necessary. By the same act, no tavern or inn within four miles of the works was permitted to sell any of its workmen strong drink under a penalty of ten shillings for each offense. Notwithstanding this law, the men were able to obtain liquors to such an extent that frequently the furnace would have to slow down production for lack of experienced men to operate it.

    Joseph Hoff, a brother-in-law of Benjamin Cooper, came from Hunterdon County in 1774 to take charge of the Hibernia Works for Lord Sterling. In the same year, he made the following announcement: HIBERNIA FURNACE; MORRIS-COUNTY, NEW JERSEY; The late Hibernia Company at this place is dissolved, and the works are now carried on for the account of the Right Honorable the Earl of Sterling, the present sole proprietor thereof. A number of wood cutters are now wanted at these works, also some good miners. A plentiful supply of all kinds of necessaries for the workmen, is now laid in, and will constantly be kept up. Three shillings per cord will be allowed for woodcuttings. Whoever inclines to work at this place, may depend on meetings with civil treatment, honest dealing, and punctual pay, from

    JOSEPH HOFF, Manager
    January 26, 1774.
    Rivington's New York Gazetteer, February 3, 1774.

    Active operations now seem to have been carried on, and on May 20, 1775, he writes to Messrs Murray that: The Furnace goes extremely well we shall make at least 20 tons weekly. I think about 65 Tons now made & 5 tons gone to Elizabeth Town.

    From: Boyer, Charles. Early Forges & Furnaces in New Jersey. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1931, pp. 92-94.

    The Hibernia Furnace was known for its production of Pig Iron. The Hibernia Furnace had a high reputation and supplied many of the forges in Morris county. The Washington Headquarters in Morristown had one of these "pig" forges.

    The Hibernia Mine comprised the Loswer Wood, Glendon, Scott, DeCamp, Upper Wood, Willis and Wharton mines of the early New Jersey Geological Survey reports, all of which operated on the Hibernia deposit. The ore body extended from the Beach mine, near New Road, northeast under the Hibernia Brook into the hill on the east.

    The Hibernia Mine was first worked as early as 1722. The "Adventure Furnace," later to become the Hibernia Furnace, supplied shot and ordnance for the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. For nearly two centuries, a series of mines and trenches, collectively known as the Hibernia Mine, produced over five million tons of magnetite ore. During the mine's long history, a total of 12 vertical shafts would eventually be sunk, two to depths of 1,600 and 2,800 feet. The deeper shafts provided as many as 26 underground working levels. Hibernia was still the fourth largest ore producer in the state when it was abandoned in 1913.

    In 1763 or 1764 Samuel Ford built Hibernia Iron Works on the Whippany River, "about four miles north of Rockaway," in the hills of northern Morris County. The furnace was secluded and protected, but not far away were to be found a number of competing works, including those at Burnt Meadow, Pompton, and White Meadow. The one asset of Hibernia was its rich vein or iron ore, which was favored over near-by competitors. Hibernia's early history show that the ore could not by itself render the works a profitable investment. The uncertain future of the works may or may not explain why Hibernia's builder quickly decided to sell two equal parts of Hibernia, while retaining only a third of the shares, but if we can believe Ford himself, the financial burden of the works does explain his early flirtation with the art of counterfeiting. In any case, Samuel Ford in 1767 sold his share of Hibernia to William Alexander, Lord Stirling, thereby making James Anderson, Benjamin Cooper, and Lord Stirling equal co-owners, while giving Ford the capital he needed to visit Ireland, there to perfect his counterfeiting skills.

    (from..."Hibernia Furnace During the Revolution, p. 1; R974.974 HIB)

    In 1850 some ore was mined to supply the furnaces as Powerville and Beach Glen; the Hibernia furnace at that time being in ruins.

    In 1873, a tunnel was driven for 2,500 feet along the ore shoot to drain the upper workings. The entrance to the tunnel still existed until 1987 and was covered by a steel plate. The portal was located across the valley behind the old Hibernia store. The tunnel is approximately 10 feet high by 15 feet wide and about 2,500 feet long and connects with the old stopes and shafts in some places.

    The deposit was worked to the surface up the hill over the tunnel, the remains still visible in the spring of 1987 in the form of a collapsed trench. The deposit occurred in several steep stringers close together, the width near the surface averaging 10 feet and increasing to 20 feet wide at greater depths.

    Around 1890 Joseph Wharton began a program of consolidation and in 1901 secured control of the entire Hibernia mines which resulted in one of the most important magnetite ore properties in the state. The property was passed on to Warren Foundry & Pipe Corp. and the Shamoon Industries. In the 1970's Shire National (successor to Shamoon Industries) sold the northeast section of the deposit. The mine has yielded more than 5,000,000 tones of ore to rank as the fourth largest producer in the state. The ore was Bessemer grade and the mine operated until 1913 when the operation was abandoned.

    Prior to 1972, the workings on top of the hill at the southeast end were mostly open, hundreds of feet deep. The Glendon shaft was approximately 900 feet deep and connected with the Hibernia tunnel. The no. 5 shaft also connected with the tunnel about 250 foot depth. The nos. 6,7 and 8 shafts were reported to be 1,600 feet deep and also connected with the tunnel at the 250 foot depth. The no. 10 shaft was reportedly 1,100 feet deep. in 1972 the openings (shafts 4-8) were blasted shut and dozed in.

    (information from..."Abandoned Iron Mines of Jefferson & Rockaway Township Morris County New Jersey 1992, p. 34-35. R974.9 )


    Decline of the Iron Industry

    In 1876, vast deposits of cheap surface iron ore were discovered in the Mesabi region near Lake Superior. In Morris County, a combination of factors caused the decline of the iron industry:

    1. Extracting the now deep veins of the high-grade ore was becoming increasingly more expensive. 2. Technological advances in the production of wrought iron and steel made the old forges obsolete. 3. Production became more expensive as anthracite coal needed to be brought from Pennsylvania to replace the diminishing charcoal supplies in the blast furnaces.

    In 1913, the last ore was mined at the Hibernia Mine. Local legend credits the Hibernia Mine closing in part to a disaster in which thirteen miners were killed in a flood caused by drilling in some old workings in Upper Hibernia. The general decline of the mining industry affected the Township severely. Mining land was sold to local residents and summer visitors.

    In 1946, the Mount Hope Mine was reopened with Hungarian workers. It was one of only three mines in the country producing iron ore. By 1955, the amount of ore extracted from mines in the Mount Hope and Mine Hill areas was 650,000 tones. By 1959, both the Richard and Mt. Hope mines were closed. It is estimated that there are still 600 million tons of ore remaining under the surface.

    Geologically, White Meadow lies in that part of the world that is the oldest land on earth. Once as high as the Alps, this ancient land has been worn down to its present height by the erosion of some 500 million years. A black iron, known as magnetite, was formed in these mountains and when they weathered down to today's dimensions, this iron was at or very near the surface. When the white man came, he found the native Americans knew this ore well. They called it Succasunna, or "black stone".

    Iron ore production and iron working were the chief support of settlers and workers in this area almost from the beginning. It is estimated that this area, now known as the Dover District, had a total iron production of 26 million long tons up through the year 1950, worth $100 million. In a historical sketch published by the Freeholders of Morris County in 1937, it was stated that the stores of iron in Northern New Jersey, chiefly in the County of Morris, were sufficient to provide all the iron the nation could use in 350 years. Most of this reserve of iron is in Rockaway Township.

    Since the iron ore mined and actively worked in this district was among the first in America and for many years the most substantial in production of its kind, this area made an early and significant contribution to the industrial development of our country and to our industrial independence from England prior to and during the Revolutionary War.

    This area was particularly suited for this development, since it not only had iron ore, but hardwood forests for the production of charcoal needed for smelting, and streams that could be dammed to provide water power for the operation of iron forges and furnaces.

    Of course, land around here was also farmed. In fact, the earliest land grants recorded in this immediate area were the farmable lands (Rockaway Valley). This was in 1715, as transactions between William Penn and the Delaware Indians, who called themselves the Lenni Lenape. (The name "Rockaway" itself is said to have been derived from the Dutch designation of an Indian sub-tribe as "Rotegevel"). Streams were also dammed to provide water power for sawmills and grist mills.

    All over this area there are small artificial ponds, with miniature falls, which had been created for these mills.

    For the operation of an iron forge, however, the reservoir of water had to be large enough to keep the forge going throughout the summer. Nearly every lake or large pond in the Township is artificial, created by dams for the water power required to operate iron forges. Rockaway Township also had three blast furnaces, located at Hibernia, Mount Hope and Split Rock. The only one still standing is the Split Rock Furnace, located below the dam of the Split Rock Reservoir. This furnace is said to have been the last in use in the State.

    Since the Rockaway River was a natural source for the water power required to operate forges, many were built along its course. The earliest one on the river in this immediate area was constructed in Rockaway Village about 1730 by Job Allen. Known later as the Stephen Jackson Forge, it was located on the present site of the Harris Lumber Yard. There were many other forges, not only on the Rockaway River but on its many tributaries: White Meadow Brook (which flows "through" White Meadow Lake), Beach Glen Brook, Meriden Brook and Den Brook.

    Iron was an important factor in the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812 and the Civil War. The output of Hibernia, Mount Hope and other mines, possibly including White Meadow, made this area the principal source of iron for the American Revolution. The Mount Hope Furnace was built in 1772 and turned out large amounts of cannon, shot and iron utensils. The Hibernia works also produced iron and iron products. It is interesting to note that in 1777, fifty men at Mount Hope and twenty-five at Hibernia were exempted from military duty.

    Slitting and rolling mills were added to furnaces and forges during the 18th century. However, the fortunes of the iron industry declined from the time of the Revolutionary War until the War of 1812.

    Hibernia's population had dwindled from 3,000 just before 1912 to only 200.

    The closing of the Hibernia Mines in 1911 and the general decline of the mining industry in this area affected the Township severely. Mining land was sold to local residents and summer visitors.


    Trails:

    The Overlook Trail (white). After a very short walk, the trail takes the hiker past the bat cave. There is a huge iron gate at the the mouth of the cave to prevent people from going in. There is also a viewing platform here.

    The trail heads uphill. It takes you to the top of a chestnut oak ridge (with some bear oak). The trail merges into a wagon trail type path. Off the trail, on the right, is a small pond. The trail continues on top of the mountain. I did not follow it very far.

    The Beaver Pond Trail (red). Here the walker is already on top of the mountain. A short walk takes the hiker to a large pond (looks more like a small lake). On one side of the lake is an area that is very dry. It has a lof of very tiny gravel which makes the area somewhat sandy. It has a lot of little blue stem grass, knapweed, and gray birch. Also here is sweetfern. The area is more open.

    If you park in the parking lot just a little ways down from the Beaver Pond Trail parking area you can take the gravel road up straight a short way and then pick up the Orange Trail that will take you to a Hawk Watch overlook that is just great. From here you can see Exit 37 on US 80 and Torne Mountain, among other sites. Orange Trail put in by William J. Gallagher, a volunteer, who watches over the area.

    From the southern trailhead, the Four Birds Trail immediately enters a clearing once used to facilitate the removal and processing of high-grade iron ore from the area. The trail passes an abandoned, barricaced mine shaft. Extending 2,500 feet in the earth, it is home to an estimated 26,000 little brown bats.

    At 0.4 mile, the trail straddles a mining berm, merges with a woods road, and bears left. The ditch along the berm once contained the water pies to Marcella Mine, used to operate the steam-powered machinery.

    The abandoned Hibernia Cemetery is 360 feet to the right down the woods road. Many of the plots belong to immigrant workers in the mines; the headstones date back to the mid-nineteenth century.


    PLANT LIST:
    Dr. Patrick L. Cooney, Michael St. John, Dr. William F. Standaert
    Dates indicate times plants found in bloom.


    Trees:
    Acer nigrum (black maple)
    Acer platanoides (Norway maple)
    Acer rubrum (red maple)
    Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
    Amelanchier arborea (shadbush)
    Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch)
    Betula lenta (black birch)
    Betula populifolia (gray birch)
    Carpinus caroliniana (musclewood)
    Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)
    Carya glabra (pignut hickory)
    Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
    Castanea dentata (American chestnut)
    Celtis occidentalis (hackberry)
    Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) 5/08/01
    Crataegus sp. (hawthorn) 5/08/01
    Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
    Fraxinus americana (white ash)
    Juglans nigra (black walnut)
    Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
    Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
    Morus alba (white mulberry)
    Ostrya virginiana (eastern hop hornbeam)
    Platanus occidentalis (sycamore)
    Populus alba (white poplar)
    Populus deltoides (cottonwood)
    Populus grandidentata (big tooth aspen)
    Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen)
    Prunus avium (sweet cherry)
    Prunus serotina (black cherry)
    Pyrus malus (apple tree)
    Quercus alba (white oak)
    Quercus ilicifolia (bear oak)
    Quercus palustris (pin oak)
    Quercus prinus (chestnut oak)
    Quercus rubra (red oak)
    Quercus velutina (black oak)
    Salix nigra (black willow)
    Sassafras albidum (sassafras) 5/08/01
    Tilia americana (American basswood)
    Tsuga canadensis (hemlock)
    Ulmus americana (American elm)

    Shrubs:
    Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
    Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry)
    Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) 5/08/01
    Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
    Comptonia peregrina (sweet fern)
    Cornus alternifolia (alternate leaved dogwood)
    Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood)
    Corylus americana (American hazel)
    Decodon verticillata (yellow loosestrife) 7/30/01
    Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) 5/08/01
    Eubotrys racemosa (fetterbush)
    Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry)
    Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
    Ilex verticillata (winterberry holly) w/ berries
    Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
    Ligustrum sp. (privet)
    Lindera benzoin (spice bush)
    Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle) 5/08/01
    Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry)
    Mitchella repens (partridgeberry)
    Rhododendron periclymenoides (pinxter flower) 5/08/01
    Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
    Rhus copallina (winged sumac) 9/02/00
    Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
    Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
    Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
    Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)
    Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry)
    Rubus sp. (blackberry)
    Salix discolor (pussy willow)
    Spiraea alba var. latifolia (meadowsweet) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Spiraea tomentosa (steeplebush)
    Syringa vulgaris (a purple lilac) 5/08/01
    Vaccinium angustifolia (low bush blueberry)
    Vaccinium corymbosum (high bush blueberry)
    Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry)
    Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry)
    Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
    Viburnum dentatum (arrowwood viburnum)
    Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)

    Vines:
    Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut) 9/02/00
    Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
    Dioscorea villosa (wild yamroot)
    Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
    Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
    Polygonum scandens (climbing false buckwheat)
    Smilax herbacea (carrion flower greenbrier)
    Smilax rotundifolia (round leaved greenbrier)
    Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
    Vitis aestivalis (summer grape)
    Vitis labrusca (fox grape)

    Herbs:
    Acalypha virginica (three-seeded mercury) 9/02/00
    Achillea millefolium (yarrow) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Agalinis tenuifolia? (common agalinis?) 9/02/00
    Agastache nepetoides (giant yellow hyssop) 9/02/00
    Agrimonia pubescens (agrimony) 9/02/00
    Ajuga reptans (ajuga)
    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)
    Amaranthus hybridus (pigweed)
    Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) 9/02/00
    Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting) 9/02/00
    Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed)
    Antennaria sp. (pussy toes)
    Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp)
    Aquilegia canadensis (columbine) 5/08/01
    Arabis laevigata (smooth rock cress)
    Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla)
    Arctium lappa (great burdock)
    Arctium minus (lesser burdock) 9/02/00
    Arisaema triphyllum (jack in the pulpit)
    Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort) 9/02/00
    Asclepias syriacus (common milkweed)
    Aster cordifolius (heart-leaved aster) 9/02/00
    Aster divaricatus (white wood aster) 9/02/00
    Aster patens (late purple aster)? 9/02/00
    Aster racemosa (aster) 9/02/00
    Barbarea vulgaris (common wintercress) 5/08/01
    Bartonia virginica (screw stem) 7/30/01
    Bidens connata (swamp beggar ticks) 9/02/00
    Bidens frondosa (beggar ticks) 9/02/001
    Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) 9/02/00
    Brasenia?
    Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed) 5/08/01 9/02/00
    Chelone glabra (turtlehead) 9/02/00
    Chenopodium album (pigweed) 9/02/00
    Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen) 7/30/01
    Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy) 9/02/00
    Cichorium intybus (chicory) 9/02/00
    Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade)
    Cirsium discolor (field thistle) 9/02/00
    Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) 9/02/00
    Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
    Commelina communis (Asiatic day flower) 9/02/00
    Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley)
    Conyza canadensis (horseweed) 9/02/00
    Corallorhiza odontorhiza (autumn corralroot) 9/02/00 soon
    Coronilla varia (crown vetch)
    Corydalis flavula (yellow corydalis) 5/08/01
    Cunila origanoides (dittany) 9/02/00
    Cypripedium acaule (pink lady's slipper) 5/08/01
    Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Desmodium canadense (showy tick trefoil) 7/30/01
    Desmodium glabellum (tick trefoil) 9/02/00
    Desmodium nudiflorum (naked-flowering tick trefoil) 7/30/01
    Desmodium rotundifolium (round-leaved tick trefoil)
    Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink) 9/02/00
    Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
    Echium vulgare (viper's bugloss) 9/02/00
    Epifagus americana (beech drops)
    Erechtites hieracifolia (pileweed) 9/02/00
    Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Eupatorium fistulosum? (trumpetweed?)
    Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot) 9/02/00
    Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge)
    Euphorbia maculata (spotted spurge) 9/02/00
    Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Fragaria vesca (wood strawberry) (end point extends beyond lateral ones)
    Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry) 5/08/01
    Galium asprellum (rough bedstraw) 7/30/01
    Galium tinctorium (bedstraw) 9/02/00
    Galium trifolium (sweet-scented bedstraw)
    Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) 5/08/01
    Geum canadense (white avens)
    Gnaphalium obtusifolium (sweet everlasting) 9/02/00
    Hackelia virginiana (Virginia stickleaf) 9/02/00
    Helianthus decapetalus (sunflower) 9/02/00
    Hieracium caespitosum (yellow king devil) 9/02/00
    Hieracium paniculatum (panicled hawkweed) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Hieracium sp. (hawkweed) multihead hairy both sides stem glaucous a few hair
    Hypericum mutilum (dwarf St. Johnswort) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Hypochoeris radicata (cat's ear) 9/02/00
    Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) 9/02/00
    Impatiens pallida (yellow jewelweed)?
    Lactuca biennis (tall blue lettuce) 9/02/00
    Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce) 9/02/00
    Laportea canadensis (wood nettle) 9/02/00
    Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort)
    Lepidium virginicum (poor man's pepper) 9/02/00
    Lespedeza hirta (hairy bush clover) 9/02/00
    Lespedeza intermedia (bush clover) 9/02/00
    Lespedeza procumbens (trailing bush clover) 9/02/00
    Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs) 9/02/00
    Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower) 9/02/00
    Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco lobelia) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Ludwigia palustris (water purslane)
    Lycopus uniflorus (bugle weed) 9/02/00
    Lycopus virginicus (Virginia bugleweed) 7/30/01
    Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife)
    Lysimachia terrestris (swamp candles)
    Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)
    Malva neglecta (common mallow) 9/02/00
    Medicago lupulina (black medick) 5/08/01 9/02/00
    Melilotus alba (white sweet clover) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Mollugo verticillata (carpet weed) 9/02/00
    Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe)
    Nymphaea odorata (fragrant white water lily) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Nymphaea odorata (the pink form of fragrant white water lily) 7/30/01
    Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose) 9/02/00
    Oxalis dillenii (yellow wood sorrel)
    Oxalis stricta (yellow wood sorrel) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Paronychia canadensis (forked chickweed)
    Phlox paniculata (garden phlox) 9/02/00
    Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)
    Pilea pumila (clearweed)
    Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) 9/02/00
    Plantago major (common plantain)
    Polygonatum biflorum (smooth true Solomon's seal)
    Polygonatum pubescens (hairy true Solomon's seal)
    Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed)
    Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose knotweed) 9/02/00
    Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese bamboo) 9/02/00
    Polygonum hydropiperoides (false water pepper) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Polygonum sagittatum (arrowhead tearthumb) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Portulaca oleracea (common purslane)
    Potamogeton crispus (curly pondweed)
    Potentilla canadensis (dwarf cinquefoil) 5/08/01
    Potentilla recta (rough-fruited cinquefoil) 9/02/00
    Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
    Prenanthes altissima (tall lettuce)
    Prunella vulgaris (self heal) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Pycnanthemum incanum (hoary mountain mint) 9/02/00
    Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf) 7/30/01
    Pyrola rotundifolia (round-leaved pyrola)
    Ranunculus abortivus (kidney-leaf buttercup) 5/08/01
    Ranunculus acris (tall buttercup) 9/02/00
    Ranunculus hispidus? (hispid buttercup)?
    Rumex acetosella (sheep sorrel)
    Rumex crispus (curled dock)
    Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) 9/02/00
    Satureja vulgaris (wild basil) 9/02/00
    Saxifraga virginiensis (early saxifrage)
    Scutellaria lateriflora (maddog skullcap) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Sedum sarmentosum? (sedum)
    Silene vulgaris (bladder campion) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal)
    Solanum nigrum (black nightshade) 9/02/00
    Solidago bicolor (silverrod) 9/02/00
    Solidago caesia (blue-stem goldenrod) 9/02/00
    Solidago canadensis var scabra (goldenrod) 9/02/00
    Solidago flexicaulis (zig zag goldenrod) 9/02/00
    Solidago juncea (early goldenrod)
    Solidago nemoralis (goldenrod) 9/02/00
    Sparganium latifolia (burreed)
    Spiranthes cernua (nodding lady's tresses) 9/02/00
    Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
    Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) 5/08/00
    Triadenum virginicum (marsh saint johnswort) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Trifolium arvense (rabbit-foot clover) 9/02/00
    Trifolium aureum (yellow clover) 9/02/00
    Trifolium campestre (hop clover) 9/02/00
    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) 9/02/00
    Trifolium pratense (red clover) 9/02/00
    Trifolium repens (white clover) 7/30/01
    Triodanis perfoliata (round-leaved triodanis)
    Triosteum perfoliatum (perfoliate horse gentian)
    Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot)
    Uvularia perfoliata (perfoliate leaved bellwort)
    Uvularia sessilifolia (sessile-leaved bellwort) 5/08/00
    Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Verbena hastata (blue vervain)
    Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) 9/02/00
    Veronica officinalis (common speedwell) 9/02/00
    Veronica scutellata (marsh speedwell) 7/30/01 9/02/00
    Vicia cracca (crown vetch) 9/02/00
    Viola pubescens (yellow forest violet) 5/08/01
    Viola sagittata (arrowhead violet)
    Viola sororia (common blue violet) 5/08/01
    Wolffia sp. (water meal)

    Rushes:
    Juncus canadensis (Canada rush)
    Juncus effusus (soft rush)
    Juncus tenuis (path rush)
    Luzula multiflora (wood rush) 5/08/01

    Sedges:
    Carex crinita (sedge)
    Carex intumescens (sedge)
    Carex laxiflora type (sedge)
    Carex lurida (sallow sedge)
    Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
    Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
    Cyperus strigosus (false nutsedge)
    Dulichium arundinacea (three-way sedge)
    Eleocharis ovata (spikerush)
    Scirpus cyperinus (woolly grass bulrush)

    Grasses:
    Agrostis gigantea (purple top grass)
    Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass) 5/08/01
    Cinna arundinacea (wood reed) 9/02/00
    Dactylis glomeratus (orchard grass)
    Danthonia spicata?
    Digitaria sanguinalis (hairy crab grass) 9/02/00
    Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass) 9/02/00
    Elymus hystrix (bottlebrush grass)
    Eragrostis spectabilis (purple love grass) 9/02/00
    Glyceria striata (mannagrass)
    Leersia alba (white grass) 9/02/00
    Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
    Lolium perenne (wild rye grass)
    Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass) 9/02/00 near
    Muhlenbergia sobolifera? (muhly grass)
    Panicum clandestinum (deer tongue grass)
    Panicum dichotomiflorum (panic grass) 9/02/00
    Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
    Poa compressa (Canada bluegrass)
    Schizachyrium scoparium (little blue stem grass)
    Setaria faberi (Faber's foxtail grass) 9/02/00
    Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail grass) 9/02/00
    Setaria viridis (green foxtail grass) 9/02/00
    Tridens flavus (purple top grass) 9/02/00
    Valisneria sp. (celery grass)?

    Ferns and Fern Allies:
    Equisetum arvense (field horsetail)
    Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
    Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
    Cystopteris fragilis var. mackayi (fragile fern)
    Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
    Dryopteris carthusiana (spinulose wood fern)
    Dryopteris marginalis (marginal woodfern)
    Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
    Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
    Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
    Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)
    Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern)

    Others:
    Cladonia cristatella (British soldiers)
    Sphagnum sp. (sphagnum moss)