WAWAYANDA STATE PARK
Warwick Turnpike just north of Passaic/Sussex County border, Vernon Township, Sussex County, NJ


Directions:

US 87/287 west over Tappan Zee Bridge;  at around green mileage marker 32 or so get off at exit 15A; turn left onto Route 17; take the first exit on the right (a sign is there for Ringwood State Park);  drive 4.8 miles to make a right turn onto Margaret King Avenue; follow Margaret King Avenue for 2.2 miles; turn right onto Greenwood Lake Turnpike; drive 2.7 miles and turn right following Greenwood Lake Turnpike; drive 1.4 miles; near a shopping center on the right, when the road bends left, keep going straight; following Warwick Turnpike drive 4.5 miles and turn left into the park entrance.

Lies in the northeastern corner of Sussex County. The Appalachian Trail traverses the breadth of the Park.

Embraces nearly six thousand acres of forests and waters in the rough hilly country of NJ's Highland Range.


Geology:

The Wawayanda Plateau, perched on the NJ Highlands, is part of the Reading Prong, a finger of very ancient mountains formed long before the Appalachians. Wawayanda is one of the few places along the highlands where the granite bedrock is visible. This rock is about 1 billion years old, the oldest rock you will see in this entire region.

Granite is igneous rock, formed by the melting and cooling of a variety of minerals. It is dense and impermeable. Thus, especially on such a flat plateau as this, water collects in small depressions and forms swamps, making the whole area generally moister than land to the east or west.

The mountain is one of the broad gneissic ridges that make up the Highlands section of New Jersey. It is on the Wawayanda Plateau (it is not a plateau in the geological sense).
255-acre Wawayanda Lake. This is the focal point of the park. It is a mile and a half long. It has five and a half miles of wooded shoreline and covers 255 acres. At the southeast end of the Laurel Pond is a stand of hemlock.


History:

The name of the park is a phonetic version of a Lenape Indian word meaning "water on the mountain."

remains of a charcoal blast furnace. Iron ore came from the nearby Wawayanda mine (2.5 miles to the northeast) and was hauled by mules to this site. (located on northern shore of Wawayanda Lake)

The remains of the Wawayanda Furnace are at the outlet of Lake Wawayanda, formerly known as Double Pond. It was owned by Oliver Ames and his three sons.

1845 -- Ames & sons built a blast furnace at Lake Wawayanda; William L. Ames acted as roving engineer.

1846-1867  --  a warm blast charcoal furnace operated; it set idle for 8 years during that time.

1854 -- under supervision of J. A. Brown, manager. Most of the ore came from the Wawayanda mine, 2.5 miles northeast of Wawayanda Lake (one half mile from the New York state line).

1856 -- final blast for the furnace.

1860  --  an eight month "blast" employed 75 men and used 2,500 tons of ore, 230,000 bushels of charcoal, 300 tons of lime, and produced 1,027 tons of pig iron.  At the same time, a sawmill cut 600 hemlock logs into 150,000 feet of timber. 

The village here contained a larger residence, store, sawmill, furnace, cheese-box mill, barns, school house, stamping mill, shingle mill, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop, grist mill and dwelling houses.

1863 -- Oliver Ames, Sr. dies.

1940s -- park heavily logged with many old logging road now converted to trails.

Fred Ferber acquired 2,800 of the Wawayanda acres, most of them in West Milford. Green Acres funds provided the rest.

1963  --  the State of New Jersey opened Wawayanda State Park to the public.


Sources:

Info from: Ransom, James A. 1966. Vanishing Ironworks of the Ramapos. Brunswick: Rutgers University.

Information also from the Historical Marker at the remains of the old furnace.


Habitats:

Cedar swamps, mature forests, and rhododendron jungles, fields, lakes, ponds, marshes.
There are three sections of the park:

1. Bearfort Mountain
This is the southern part consisting of 1,325 acres. Oak hardwood forest. Timber rattlesnake and bog turtle here.

2. Hemlock Ravine  (unreachable on one's own; contact the visitor's center about possible tours)
This is a small area but it contains the three endangered species of Dewey's sedge, white-grained mountain rice grass, and witch hobble.

3. Wawayanda Swamp
Atlantic white cedar swamp, mixed oak hardwood forest, and a glacially formed, spring-fed lake. Beavers can be seen from the bridge on the Double Pond Trail.


Hiking:

The Double Pond Trail, marked with blue blazes, starts at the picnic ground and climbs a small ridge, where weathered hunks of granite lie. They were exposed by the ice sheets and broken up by water freezing in minute cracks within the rock.

Cedar Swamp Trail. In the pockets of the swamp, both the northern and the Atlantic white-cedar are found. The northern white-cedar is at the extreme southern limit of its habitat and is seldom found elsewhere in NJ. Rhododendron also grows profusely in this acidic, wet environment, blooming from late June to early July.

Continue to bear right for a mile and a half. The trail ends at Cherry Ridge Road; turn west (right). Groves of beeches dominate at C. These fast-growing, shade-tolerant trees form part of the climax forest, for their sprouts can flourish in the shade of the larger trees, while the birches, black cherry, and aspens p3P/ disappear as the forest grows up. Farther along are the remains of old farms. Creeping red fescue, a lush and delicate grass, grows in the shade, probably planted by the residents of this old homestead. So is the barberry, a thorny shrub that also grows here. A little farther, on the right, is a "wolf tree," an old shade tree that grew in an open spot -- a field or yard. With no competition for light, it grew into a spreading, bushy specimen. Now the forest is taking over and will eventually overshadow it.

Follow Laurel Pond Trail to the northeast (right); it is marked by yellow blazes. The trail passes through an impressive field of granite cliffs and boulders. A small, pure stand of eastern hemlock lies to the left of the trail at F. Borings of soil taken to the depth of the bedrock contain only plant remains from hemlocks, indicating that no hardwoods have grown here since the last ice sheet retreated northward about 15,000 years ago.

This walk takes about 2 hours of moderate hiking. Parts are very wet in spring. Group camping is available in the park. Audubon Guide


10/27/98.  Climbed up the Wawayanda cliffs on the AT trail starting from the AT parking area off Route 94 in Sussex County just below its intersection with Route 515. For a botanist it is a bit strenuous. It took a little over an hour to get to the top. The trail zig-zags its way up to the top, zigging south at the bottom and zagging back to the north in the middle and top parts of the climb. The white trail intersects with a blue trail on the left that, after a short walk, leads to a lookout point.

Back on the white trail it again comes to an intersection with a blue trail. A mailbox is here along with a notebook where you can sign in. After a moderate walk that takes the hiker down to a hemlock area surrounding a buttonbush shrub swamp, the trail heads to the top and then a short distance south to a small open field with a great view of the valley below.

From the viewpoints, the hiker can see the Wallkill River Valley, or at least the part that is not blocked by a ridge in the middle of the valley that goes 3/4s the way up the viewing area. High Point monument is visible on the Kittatinny Ridge to the west. In Orange County the viewer can see the black earth used by the farmers. Also seen are two mountain outliers, Mt. Eve and Mt. Adam.

One can also see the AT parking lot below across from Heaven Hill Farm. There is quite a bit of mining activity between Route 94 and the Wawayanda cliffs.

Checked to see if there was a short cut to the top via Barrett Road, just .3 miles north of its intersection with Hickory Road. (1.4 miles south of the intersection of Route 94 and Barrett Road.) No parking area. I wonder if one could park along Hickory Road?  Dr. Patrick L. Cooney.


06/01/05.  On a beautiful day, Ceferino Santana, dog Sonar and I parked at the first parking lot inside the park itself.  Walked over to near the bath house, turned right, found the entrance to a short path leading to the orange trail and started walking uphill a bit.  Turned right at the three orange markings indicating the beginning/end of the trail.  We headed southwest through the woods.  The trail turned left and then went downhill to a marsh with a few cattails and many dead trees.  We walked along the marsh and then had to head through a swamp area using the various rocks and roots as stepping stones.  One out of  the swamp, we followed the orange trail stuck between a mountain on the left and the marsh on the right.  It is very rocky here and some trail maintenance needs to be done to make the going a little easier.  We rested a bit and I wondered if we shouldn't turn around and head back.  But I decided to proceed a bit farther and discovered that we were almost out of the rocky area and back into woods.  We went uphill following the trail.  By this time I was not finding much new as far as plants are concerned and so we turned around and went back. 

We then drove to the second parking lot by the lake.  We took the Double Pond Trail along the lake shore.  We then descended to a four-way intersection with the remains of the old furnace on the left.  We walked a little farther and decided to call it quits.  We should come back at the end of June or early July to see the rhododendrons at their maximum peak time.   Dr. Patrick L. Cooney.


PLANT LIST:
Dr. Patrick L. Cooney


Trees:
Acer pensylvanica (goose-foot maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)
Amelanchier arborea (shadbush)
Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Betula nigra (river birch)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (musclewood) 7/13/98 in fruit
Carya glabra (pignut hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Castanea dentata (American chestnut)
Celtis occidentalis (northern hackberry)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) 4/28/98
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus pensylvanica (green ash)
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
Larix sp. (larch)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree) 6/15/95
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)
Ostrya virginiana (eastern hop hornbeam)
Pinus sp. (pine)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus avium (sweet cherry)
Prunus serotina (black cherry) 4/28/98 6/01/05
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak)
Quercus ilicifolia (bear oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Thuja occidentalis (arbor vitae)
Tilia americana (American basswood)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)

Shrubs:
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush) 8/30/95
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush) 8/30/95
Comptonia peregrina (sweetfern)
Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray-stemmed dogwood)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)  6/01/05
Gaultheria procumbens (teaberry) 7/13/98 7/16/98
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry) 6/01/05
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry) 7/13/98 fruit
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel) 6/15/95 soon
Ligustrum sp. (privet) 6/15/95
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle) 4/28/98 6/01/05
Lonicera tatarica (Tatarian honeysuckle)
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry)
Rhamnus carthartica (common buckthorn)
Rhododendron maximum (great laurel) 6/15/95 7/13/98 & 7/16/98 waning
Ribes sp. (gooseberry)
Rosa carolina (pasture rose) 6/15/95
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose) 6/15/95
Rosa palustris (swamp rose) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Rosa sp. horticultural one 8/30/95
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry) 6/01/05
Rubus hispidus (swamp dewberry)  6/01/05
Rubus odoratus (in the valley on the AT) (flowering raspberry) 7/13/98
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry) 7/13/98 fr.
Rubus sp. (blackberry)  6/01/05
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Sambucus canadensis (common elderberry) 7/16/98
Sambucus racemosa (red elderberry)
Spiraea alba v. latifolia (meadowsweet) 7/13/98 7/16/98 8/30/95
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut) 4/28/98
Syringa vulgaris (lilac) 
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)
Vaccinium pallida (hillside blueberry)
Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple-leaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum (smooth arrowwood viburnum) 6/15/95 7/13/98
Viburnum lentago (nannyberry viburnum)  6/01/05
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)

Vines:
Apios americana (ground nut) 8/30/95
Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
Cuscuta sp. (dodder)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade) 6/15/95 7/13/98
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Smilax herbacea (carrion flower greenbrier)
Smilax rotundifolia (round-lead greenbrier)
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)

Herbs:
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Actaea alba (doll's eyes) 7/13/98 fr.
Agrimonia gryposepala (common agrimony) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Agrimonia parviflora (small-flowered agrimony)
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut)
Alisma sp. (water plantain)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) 4/28/98 7/13/98
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut)
Anemone canadensis (thimbleweed) 7/13/98 & in fr.
Anemonella thalictroides (rue anemone) 4/28/98
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp) 7/13/98
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla)  6/01/05  7/13/98 in fruit
Arctium sp. (burdock) 8/30/95 3/4" flwr stalk
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) 7/13/98
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster)
Aureolaria virginica (downy false foxglove) 7/13/98
Barbarea vulgaris (common wintercress)  6/01/05
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle)
Brasenia schreberi ? (water shield)
Calla palustris (wild calla)
Callitriche sp. (water stargrass)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold) 
Centaurea jacea (brown knapweed) 8/30/95
Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) 7/16/98 8/30/95 10/27/98
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed)  6/01/05
Chelidonium majus (celandine) 7/13/98
Chelone glabra (white turtlehead)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy) 6/15/95 7/13/98 8/30/95
Cichorium intybus (chicory) 8/30/95 10/27/98
Cimicifuga racemosa (American bugbane)  6/01/05
Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) 8/30/95
Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) 7/13/98
Collinsonia canadensis (horsebalm) 7/13/98
Comptonia peregrina (sweetfern)
Conium maculatum (water hemlock)
Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley)  6/01/05
Corydalis sempervirens (corydalis) 7/16/98
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace) 7/13/98 8/30/95 10/27/98
Desmodium canadense (showy tick-trefoil) 8/30/95
Desmodium glutinosum (pointed-leaf tick trefoil) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Epifagus virginiana (beech drops)
Epipactis helleborine (helleborine orchid) 7/13/98
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane)  6/01/05  6/15/95 7/13/98 8/30/95 hairy, not clasping
Eupatorium dubium (eastern joe-pye-weed) 8/30/95
Eupatorium purpureum (purple joint joe-pye-weed)
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot)
Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge) 4/28/98
Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge)  6/01/05  6/15/95
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry) 4/28/98  6/01/05
Galinsoga ciliata (galinsoga) 8/30/95
Galium aparine (cleavers)  6/01/05
Galium lanceolatum (lance-leaved wild licorice) 
Galium mollugo (wild madder) 6/15/95 7/13/98 10/27/98
Galium sp. (bedstraw) 4 lvs in whorl; small white flowers
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium)  6/01/05
Geranium robertianum (herb Robert geranium)
Geum canadense (white avens)
Geum laciniatum (rough avens) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Helianthus sp. (sunflower)
Hemerocallis fulva (tawny day lily) 7/13/98
Hieracium caespitosum (field hawkweed) 6/01/05  6/15/95
Hieracium sp. (hawkweed) 6/15/95
Hieracium venosum (rattlesnake hawkweed)
Hypericum mutilum (dwarf St. Johnswort) 7/16/98
Hypericum perforatum (common St. Johnswort) 8/30/95
Hypericum punctatum (spotted St. Johnswort) 7/13/98
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)  6/01/05
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Iris versicolor (blue flag)  6/01/05  6/15/95
Lemna sp. (duckweed)
Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort) 7/13/98
Lepidium campestre (field peppergrass)  6/01/05
Lilium canadense (Canada lily) 7/16/98
Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower) 8/30/95
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco) 8/30/95
Lobelia puberula (downy lobelia) 8/30/95
Lobelia spicata (spiked lobelia) 7/13/98
Lotus corniculatus (birdfoot trefoil) 7/13/98
Ludwigia palustris (water purslane)
Lycopus americana (water horehound) 8/30/95
Lycopus virginicus (purple leaf bugleweed)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife) 7/13/98
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife) 
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) 7/13/98
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)  6/01/05
Medeola virginiana (Indian cucumber root) 7/16/98 in fr.
Medicago lupulina (black medick)  6/01/05  7/13/98
Melampyrum lineare (cowwheat) 6/15/95 7/13/98
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Melilotus officinalis (yellow white clover) 8/30/95
Mentha arvensis (wild mint) 8/30/95
Mimulus ringens (monkey flower) 8/30/95
Mitella diphylla (mitrewort)  6/01/05
Monarda fistulosum (wild bergamot) 8/30/95
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe) 7/13/98 7/16/98
Myosotis scorpioides (forget-me-not) 6/01/05  8/30/95
Nymphaea odorata (fragrant white water lily) 6/15/95 8/30/95
Nuphar variegata (spatterdock)  6/01/05  6/15/95 8/30/95
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose) 8/30/95
Oxalis sp. (yellow wood sorrel)  6/01/05  7/13/98 8/30/95
Pedicularis canadensis (wood betony)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Pilea pumila (clearweed)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) 6/01/05  8/30/95
Plantago major (common plantain)
Podophyllum peltatum (may apple) 4/28/98
Polygonatum biflorum (true Solomon's seal)
Polygonatum pubescens (hairy true Solomon' s seal)
Polygonum arifolium (halberd-leaved tearthumb)
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose knotweed) 7/13/98
Polygonum hydropiperoides (false water pepper knotweed)
Polygonum sagittatum (arrow-leaved tearthumb) 7/13/98
Polygonum virginianum (jumpseed knotweed) 8/30/95
Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed)
Potamogeton amplifolius? (big leaf pondweed) 7/13/98
Potentilla canadensis (dwarf cinquefoil)  6/01/05
Potentilla norvegica (rough cinquefoil) 7/13/98
Potentilla recta (rough-fruited cinquefoil) 6/15/95 8/30/95
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)  6/01/05
Prenanthes altissima (tall white lettuce)
Prenanthes trifoliolata (tall rattlesnake root) 7/13/98
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf) 7/13/98
Pycnanthemum sp. (mountain mint)
Ranunculus abortivus (kidney-leaved crowfoot) 
Ranunculus acris (tall buttercup) 6/01/05  6/15/95 8/30/95
Ranunculus bulbosus (bulbous buttercup) 6/01/05
Ranunculus hispidus var. caricetorium (swamp buttercup) 6/01/05
Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima (black-eyed Susan) 7/13/98
Rumex acetosella (field sorrel)
Sagittaria sp. (broad-leaf arrowhead)
Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) 7/13/98
Scutellaria galericulata (marsh skullcap) 7/13/98
Scutellaria lateriflora (maddog skullcap) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)  6/01/05
Senecio obovatus (round-leaved ragwort)  6/01/05
Silene latifolia (white campion) 6/01/05  6/15/95 7/13/98 8/30/95
Silene vulgaris (bladder campion) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Sisyrinchium sp. (blue eyed grass) 6/15/95
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal)  6/01/05
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle) 8/30/95
Solidago caesia (blue-stem goldenrod) 10/27/98
Solidago canadensis var. altissima (tall goldenrod)
Solidago flexicaulis (zig-zag goldenrod) 10/27/98
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod) 7/16/98 8/30/95
Sparganium androcladum (branching burreed) 7/13/98
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 4/28/98  6/01/05  7/13/98
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadowrue) 
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadowrue) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Tragopogon pratensis (yellow goats beard)
Trientalis borealis (starflower)  6/.01/05
Trifolium aureum (yellow clover) 7/13/98
Trifolium pratense (red clover) 6/01/05  6/15/95 7/13/98 8/30/95 10/27/98
Trifolium repens (white clover) 6/01/05  6/15/95 7/13/98 8/30/95 10/27/98
Triadenum virginicum (marsh St. Johnswort)
Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot)
Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail)
Typha latifolia (cattail)
Urtica dioica var. procera (sting nettle)
Vallisneria americana (water celery) ?
Veratrum viride (swamp hellebore)  6/01/05
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)
Verbena hastata (blue vervain) 8/30/95
Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) 7/13/98 8/30/95
Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed) 8/30/95
Veronica officinalis (common speedwell)
Veronica serpyllifolia (thyme-leaved speedwell)  6/01/05
Vicia cracca (cow vetch) 6/15/95
Viola cucullata (marsh violet)  6/01/05
Viola sororia (common blue violet) 4/28/98  6/01/05

Rushes and Sedges:
Carex crinita (sack sedge)
Carex intumescens (sack sedge)
Carex grayi (gray's sack sedge)
Carex laxiflora type (sack sedge)
Carex lurida (sack sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sack sedge)
Carex stipata (sack sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sack sedge)
Carex vulpinoidea (sack sedge)
Cyperus strigosus (umbrella sedge)
Dulichium arundinaceum (three-way sedge)
Eleocharis sp. (spike rush)
Juncus effusus (softstem bulrush)
Juncus tenuis (path rush)
Luzula multiflora (wood rush)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (woolly grass bulrush)
Scirpus validus (softstem bulrush)

Grasses:
Alopecurus sp. (bristletail grass)
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass) 4/28/98 soon
Bromus inermis (smooth brome grass)
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass) 7/13/98
Elymus hystrix (bottle brush grass)
Glyceria striata (meadow mannagrass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass)
Panicum clandestinum (deer-tongue grass)
Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) 6/15/95
Phleum pratense (timothy grass)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Poa annua (annual bluegrass)
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem grass)

Ferns & Fern Allies:
Equisetum arvense (horse tail)
Lycopodium sp. (ground cedar)
Lycopodium sp. (ground pine)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal wood fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Polypodium sp. (rock cap fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern)
Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern)

Others:
rock tripe lichen
Sphagnum sp. (sphagnum moss)

David Snyder says that Lycopodium annotinum is at Wawayanda lake


WAWAYANDA. October 13, 1930. After luncheon on the high plateau, north of Stockholm, the last visit of the day was made in the Cedar Swamp on the Wawayanda Plateau, west of Greenwood Lake where the Southern White Cedar, Chamaecyparis was seen in great numbers. Coptis trifolia, the Goldthread also occurs in the swamp. The trip leader was Raymond H. Torrey.


WAWAYANDA CEDAR SWAMP. March 26. A late touch of winter, with four inches of wet snow on the field trip of Sunday, March 26th, on the Appalachian Trail from the Unknown Pond, on Bearfort Mountain, to Wawayanda Cedar Swamp, delayed members in reaching the rendezvous so that the entire party was never joined during the day.

December 10, 1933. for lichens. John W. Thomson, Jr.