RINGWOOD MANOR SECTION OF RINGWOOD STATE PARK
Passaic County, NJ
Ringwood State Park
4,054 acres


Directions:

Take I-87 north, passing exit 15 for I-287 south to NJ, and get off at the next exit, 15A, (US Route 17 north) and proceed to Sloatsburg; turn/bear right (there is a a very small sign for Ringwood) onto Sterling Mine Road. Keep following the Ringwood signs continuing/ bearing straight past an entrance for Sterling Forest and drive into New Jersey onto Mill Pond Road/Sloatsburg Road. Turn right (west) into Ringwood and proceed to the parking area near the Manor House. Coming from New Jersey, it is easier to take I-287 north to I-87 north and take Exit 15A and then follow the directions above.


Geology:

Location: Wanaque River Valley.


History:

1716 -- Peter Hasenclever is born in Remscheid, Germany.

1730 -- he works in a steel mill.

1736 -- Cornelius Board explores the Ringwood River in the uninhabited hills of northern New Jersey looking for precious metals. What he found instead were frequent outcroppings of iron ore. Together with Timothy Ward he buys property in the area including today's Sterling Lake. They build a bloomery at the foot of the lake and start manufacturing iron. Four years later he purchases three tracts of land from the Proprietors of East Jersey in the Ringwood area.

1740 -- Board sells his interest in the Sterling ironworks to Ward and moves to Ringwood where he erects a forge about a half mile south of the manor house. Board sells 16 acres of property to the Ogden family of Newark. The Ogdens bought other properties also. They form the Ringwood Company.

1742 -- the Ogdens built the first blast furnace and become the first volume producers of iron; acquire Nicholas Gouvernour as partner.

1762 -- Ogdens build a new furnace at Ringwood.

1763 -- close the Ringwood Ironworks.

1763 -- Hasenclever moves to London and becomes a British citizen. Later becomes a partner in the investment firm of Hasenclever, Seton and Crofts.

1764 -- Hasenclever arrives in New York. "Baron" Peter Hasenclever had read in a New York newspaper that the Ringwood Ironworks Estates was "decayed." He inspects the area and purchases it in 1764 from the Ogdens and the Gouvernours for the London Company. He acquires 50,000 acres of land. He builds the Charlotteburg and Long Pond Ironworks in New Jersey and the Cortlandt and Cedar Ponds works in New York. The latter two were not that successful. Imported German workers arrive. Hasenclever spends almost to his allowed budget.
He expands and comes to own some 50,000 acres of land. He built the Charlotteburg and Long Pond works in New Jersey and the Cortlandt and Cedar Ponds (the last never completed) works in New York. (Ransom 1966:19) He expanded too much and spent too much money in doing so.

1766 -- big changes in the firm back in London with a new name, the American Company.

1766 -- with Gov. William Franklin, Hasenclever helps establish Queens College, now Rutgers.

1766 -- Hasenclever's American Company (a.k.a. the London Company) established the Long Pond Ironworks. He built a blast furnace for smelting iron ore, a forge for producing bar iron, a blacksmith shop, a sawmill, a horse stable, a store, charcoal houses and dwellings for ironworkers at the site.

In building the Long Pond furnace (1766-1768), he dams the Long Pond (Wanaque ) River, thereby creating the Long Pond (Greenwoood Lake). He establishes Ringwood Manor, an iron plantation combining the medieval institution of a manor with the modern iron industry.

1767 -- Hasenclever is relieved under charges of extravagant spending.  Works at Ringwood had actually deteriorated. Then Jeston Humfray arrives to take over the management of the firm. The firm tries to out maneuver Hasenclever but he turns for help to NJ governor Franklin.
Franklin appoints a committee of 4.


1) William Alexander, Earl of Stirling, part owner of Hibernia Ironworks.
2) Captain James Gray, ironmaster at Little Falls;
3) Colonel John Schuyler of the Schuyler copper mine near Second River (now Belleville), NJ; and
4) Major Theunis Dey of "Lower Preakness."

They applaud the achievements of Hasenclever.

1769 -- Hasenclever sails for London. Never returns and is involved in legal disputes with his partners for the rest of his life. He had acquired way more land than he could use in America and this strained his company.

1769 -- German ironmaster John Jacob Faesch (brought over by Hasenclever) succeeds Humfray as manager of the ironworks.

1771 --- Robert Erskine sent to become the new manager of the ironworks; Erskine co-manages for awhile with Faesch the iron works of the American Company; when the American revolution broke out, he sided with the colonists.

1772 -- friction between the two causes Faesch to leave to operate his newly purchased and soon to be built Mt. Hope Ironworks.

1773 -- Erskine damns Hasenclever in the press. Erskine's reports were so negative that the American Company decides to sell its iron holdings.

1773 -- Hasenclever leaves to settle in Germany. Is successful there in running the linen business for Frederick the Great.

1775 -- Erskine commissioned captain of a company of foot militia organized at the Ringwood works for defense against the British.

1776 -- Erskine designs a type of cheavaux-de-frise built of sharpened logs and ironwork that would obstruct British warships in the Hudson River. Tried to place them in the Fort Washington area, but the water was too deep there.

1777 -- Erskine is commissioned geographer and surveyor-general to the Continental Army. He created a great many highly detailed maps for the army.

The products of the forges and furnaces were of great importance to the colonies during the Revolutionary War. Troops were stationed here, and George Washington was a visitor to Ringwood.

1778 -- Ringwood raided by a gang of thieves that included some of the members of the Claudius Smith gang; they plunder the house, taking plates, four silver watches and a sword among other items. The raiders wanted to know the last where abouts of Erskine. Having no luck they took what valuables they wanted and left. Claudius himself was not in the raid as he was hiding out on Long Island for the killing of Major Strong.

1780 -- overwork and strain leads to him catching a severe cold while on a mapping expedition and shortly after returning to Ringwood Erskine dies; dead two weeks after his return to Ringwood. Business associates ask Ogden to take over the place, but Mrs. Erskine successfully fights this. George Washington also helped out.

1781 -- Mrs. Erskine marries Robert Lettis Hooper, Jr., one of the owners of the famous Durham Ironworks and a Deputy Quartermaster General in the American Army.

1782 -- the Americans expropriate the mines from the London Company .

1783 -- at the end of the Revolutionary War the Erskines move to their estate "Belleville" at the falls of the Delaware River near Trenton, NJ. Ringwood is deserted and falls into disrepair.

1793 -- Hasenclever dies. Courts eventually decide in favor of Hasenclever, but he is long dead and the company is bankrupt.

1795 -- Sir George Jackson and Robert Mure, trustees of the American Iron Company, contract through their agent, Phineas Bond, with James Old of Pool Forge, PA for the sale of the Ringwood estate (including Long Pond but not Charlotteburg). But Sheriff Bell seizes the property, holds an auction, and sells the property to John Travis, leaving Old without a legal claim.

1798 -- Travis sells the estate to James Old.

1804 -- James Lyle gets the property through foreclosure.

1807 -- Martin J. Ryerson of Pompton, NJ, buys the mines. He also acquired the Long Pond Ironworks, Pompton Ironworks in Pompton, NJ, and works in Charlotteburg.

1839 -- Ryerson dies and his sons take the ironworks into bankruptcy

1842 -- his sons have control now in the Ryerson Iron Company, but the property is soon up for auction.

1853 -- Peter Cooper, founder of Cooper Union in New York City, buys the property (including Long Pond). Negotiations done by Abram S. Hewitt manager of the Trenton Iron Company and business partner with Cooper's son, Edward. Hewitt soon had Ringwood thriving again.
The property later passed to Abram Hewitt, later a reform mayor of New York City. He was Cooper's iron manager and later married Cooper's daughter, Amelia (1855).

All attempts to have the Morris Canal Company transport their iron at a reasonable price are in vain. So he courts the Erie Railroad.

Hewitt builds the present Ringwood Manor house near the site of the first manor house built by Peter Hasenclever. It was completed in 1878. It was always used as a summer house, the winters spent in New York City. None of the ponds in front of the manor house were in existence when the Hewitts moved to Ringwood. The larger pond was created about 1895.
Hewitt builds another mansion on adjoining property as a wedding gift to his daughter Amy. In 1930 this second mansion was sold to the Franciscan Capuchin Sisters for a convent.

1861 -- on the verge of disaster, Ringwood was saved by the Civil War.  They made the gun carriages used to support the mortars. Hewitt even got a letter from Lincoln about this and the need for speed. He took no profit from the manufactory, but he did visit Lincoln to get compensation for the cost of the materials.

Hewitt considers the Long Pond works to be a part of the Ringwood ironworks.

1870 --- Hewitt ready to sell again.

1874 -- the New York and Greenwood Lake Railway builds a spur to Ringwood, but the railroad arrives a little late because of the panic of 1873.

1875 -- There was was a spur (of the Pompton to Greenwood line) of the Montclair Railway Company to the mines. (Later known as the New York and Greenwood Lake Railway.)

1879 -- only mining done.

1880 -- iron ore from Mesabi range in Minnesota replaces Ramapo iron ore.

1893 -- all mining discontinued.

1900-1931 -- The Peters Mine worked on and off until 1931 and again during World War II and the Korean conflict.

1936 -- Erskine Hewitt donates the Manor House and 95 acres to the state of New Jersey. His nephew, Norvin Green (namesake of nearby Norvin Green State Forest) makes an additional gift to bring the total up to 579 acres. Later purchases, using Green Acres funds, continue up to as recently as 1978. The park now extends east into Bergen County, connecting with Ramapo Mountain State Forest and a Bergen County reservation to form a large network of public lands. An extensive network of trails in the area is developed in the 1970s by volunteers coordinated by the NYNJTC.

1942 -- the Defense Plant Corporation of the federal government bought the Ringwood mines, Peters and Cannon mines. Nothing much came out of them.

1958 -- Pittsburgh Pacific Company of Crosby, Minnesota, purchases the works at government action.

Many of the old buildings are covered by the Wanaque Reservoir. There is an old mining town at Long Pond Historical Iron District. Close to Ringwood was old Peters mine. The mine hole itself is covered because it was later used as a dump. A little farther away was Cannon mine.

Bibliography:
Cohen, David Steven
1974 The Ramapo Mountain People. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Lenik, Edward J.
1996 Iron Mine Trails: A History and Hiker's Guide to the Historic Iron Mines of the New Jersey and New York Highlands. New York: New York-New Jersey Trail Conference.


Trail:

The hike starts at the park office, where maps and brochures are usually available. Follow along Sally's Pond (also known as Ringwood Mill Pond) with the pond on the left. Turn left when you come to a dirt road.

Follow the blue-markers of the Manor Trail on the telephone poles and trees, turn right and climb upwards. Indian Currant is on the right side of the trail. The trail passes several houses now used by various state agencies for short-term projects.

Eventually the trail goes off to the right into the woods. About 45 minutes into the hike, the trail crosses a pipeline. If you take a short jog to the left you will see a valley with a power line running through it. Looking northwest at 310 degrees, if you continued straight across the highway ahead, a dirt path takes you to the top of the mountain. This is the area of the Peters Mine and Hope Mine.

Continue across the path of the buried pipeline. A small stream is reached. The trail follows the stream for a short distance then crosses it on some stones. Along the way is an interesting island in the stream that is covered with a horsetail, Equisetum hyemale.

The path is again in the woods, this time in a very pretty shallow valley. There are a lot of beech trees in sections along this entire trail. It is not that often when a trail goes through so much beech. Other tree species include oak, maple, and dogwood. Soon, off to the left, there is a large, water-filled rectangle. This depression is an old mine pit.

There is a section of the trail that looks somewhat like a tunnel created by all the overhaning winged euonymus plants (Euonymus alatus). It is very pretty.

Upon reaching an intersection with a wide road, follow the blue markings as they indicate a right turn (downhill). This takes you back to the Manor House within a few minutes.


Plant List:
Dr. Patrick L. Cooney (5/21/94 from Nancy Slowik) (6/15/02 Wayne Morris  & TBS)


Trees:
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)
Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (musclewood)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)
Carya glabra (pignut hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Castanea dentata (American chestnut)
Celtis occidentalis (American hackberry)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
Fagus sylvatica (copper beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
Larix sp. (larch)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree) 6/15/02
Magnolia sp. (magnolia)
Metasequoia glyptostroboides (dawn red wood)
Morus alba (white mulberry)
Ostrya virginiana (eastern hop hornbeam)
Oxydendron arboreum (sourwood tree) planted -- 8/05/95 8/14/97 8/16/97
Picea abies (Norway spruce)
Picea pungens (Colorado blue spruce)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Prunus sp. (avium?) (cherry)
Prunus sp. (Okame cherry)? planted
Pyrus sp. (crab apple)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Salix nigra (black willow)?
Salix sericea (silky willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Taxodium distichum (bald cypress) planted
Tilia americana (American basswood)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)

Shrubs:
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Berberis vulgare (European barberry)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Chimaphila maculata (striped wintergreen)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush) 8/05/95
Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray-stemmed dogwood) 6/15/02
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazel)
Cotinus sp.( smoke tree) 8/14/97
Decodon verticillata (swamp loosestrife) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Deutzia sp. (deutzia ) 6/15/02
Diervilla lonicera (bush honeysuckle) 6/15/02
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus)
Forsythia sp. (forsythia)
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch-hazel)
Hydrangea sp. (hydrangea) 8/05/95
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Ligustrum obtusifolium (privet) 6/15/02
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry) 6/15/02
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry) 6/15/02
Philadelphus inodorus (mock orange) 6/15/02
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhamnus frangula (European buckthorn) 6/15/02
Rhododendron maximum? (rosebay rhododendron) 6/15/02 8/14/97
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pinxter flower)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac) 8/14/97
Rosa carolina (rose) 6/15/02
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose) 6/15/02
Rosa palustris (swamp rose) 8/14/97
Rubus alleghaniensis (common blackberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry raspberry)
Rubus sp. (blackberry) 8/16/97
Salix sp. (willow shrub)
Sambucus canadensis (common elderberry) 6/15/02
Spiraea alba var. latifolia (meadowsweet) 8/14/97
Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Indian currant)
Syringa reticulata (Japanese tree lilac) 6/15/02
Taxus canadensis (American yew)
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple-leaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum (arrowwood viburnum) 6/15/02
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)
Viburnum sp. (cranberry viburnum type) 8/14/97
Weigelia sp. (weigelia) 6/15/02 8/5/95

Vines:
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelain berry)
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut)
Apios americana (groundnut) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
Clematis sp. (virgin's bower) 8/05/95
Cuscuta compacta (dodder) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Dioscorea villosa (wild yamroot)
Hedera helix (English ivy)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) 6/15/02 8/05/95
Mikania scandens (climbing hempweed) 8/14/97 8/16/97
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Polygonum scandens (climbing false buckwheat) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Smilax herbacea (carrion flower) 6/15/02
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade) 6/15/02 8/05/95
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vitis aestivalis (summer grape)
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)
Wisteria floribunda (Japanese wisteria)

Herbs:
Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf)
Acalypha rhomboidea (three-seeded mercury)
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/16/97
Actaea alba (doll's eyes) 5/21/94
Agrimonia parvifolia (few-flowered agrimony) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Ajuga reptans (bugleweed) 5/21/94
Alliaria petiolata (wild mustard) 6/15/02
Allium canadense (wild onion) 6/15/02
Allium vineale (field garlic) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Amaranthus sp. (pigweed)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) -- 8/16/97
Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel) 8/16/97
Anemone canadensis (wood anemone)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed)
Anemonella thalictroides (rue anemone) 5/21/94
Antennaria plantaginifolia (plantain-leaved pussytoes)
Arabidopsis thaliana (mouse-ear cress)
Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla) 5/21/94
Arctium lappa (great burdock) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Arctium minus (lesser burdock)
Arenaria serpyllifolia (thyme-leaved sandwort)
Arisaema triphyllum (jack in the pulpit) 5/21/94
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Aster cordifolius (heart-leaved aster) 8/05/95
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster) 8/16/97
Aster schreberi (Schreber's aster) 8/16/97
Baptisia tinctoria (wild indigo) 5/21/94
Barbarea vulgaris (common wintercress) 5/21/94
Bidens connata (beggar ticks)
Bidens frondosa (beggar ticks)
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Brassica juncea (Chinese mustard) 6/15/02
Campanula rapunculoides (creeping bellflower) 8/14/97
Cardamine impatiens (cardamine)
Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed) 8/14/97
Ceratophyllum demersum (coontail)
Chelidonium majus (celandine) 5/21/94
Chenopodium album (pigweed)
Chenopodium ambrosioides (Mexican tea)
Chenopodium pumilio (keeled goosefoot)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/14/97
Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade) 8/14/97
Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) 6/15/02 soon; 8/05/95 8/16/97
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) 8/16/97
Collinsonia canadensis (horsebalm)
Comandra umbellata (bastard toadflax) 6/15/02
Commelina communis (Asiatic dayflower) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Conyza canadensis (horseweed) 8/16/97
Cypripidium acaule (pink lady's slipper)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Desmodium canadense (showy tick trefoil) 8/14/97
Desmodium glabellum (Dillen's tick trefoil) 8/05/95
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/16/97
Epifagus virginiana (beechdrops)
Epilobium coloratum (purple-leaved willowherb) 8/16/97
Erechtites hieraciifolia (pilewort)
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/16/97
Eupatorium fistulosum (trumpetweed) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted joe-pye-weed) 8/14/97
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Eupatorium purpureum (sweet-scented joe-pye-weed) 8/14/97
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot) 8/16/97
Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge)
Euphorbia maculata (milk purslane)
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod) 8/05/95
Fagopyrum sagittatum (buckwheat) 8/14/97
Galinsoga quadriradiata (galinsoga) 8/14/97
Galium asprellum (rough bedstraw) 8/5/95
Galium circaezens (white wild licorice)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) 5/21/94
Geranium sibiricum (Siberian geranium) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/16/97
Geum canadense (white avens) 6/15/02 8/05/95
Glechoma hederacea (gill-over-the-ground) 6/15/02
Goodyera pubescens (rattlesnake plantain)
Hackelia virginiana (Virginia stickseed)
Helianthus spp. (sunflower) 8/05/95
Helianthus strumosus (pale-leaf sunflower) 8/05/95
Hemerocallis fulva (tawny day-lily)
Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket) 6/15/02
Hieracium aurantiacum (orange hawkweed) 6/15/02
Hieracium caespitosum (yellow king devil hawkweed) 6/15/02 8/05/95
Hieracium piloselloides (mouse-ear hawkweed) 6/15/02
Hosta sp. (hosta) 8/05/95
Hypericum mutilum (dwarf St. Johnswort) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Hypericum perforatum (common St. Johnswort) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Iris sp. (blue or yellow flag)
Krigia biflora (two-flowered Cynthia) 6/15/02
Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce) 8/14/97
Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce) 8/14/97
Lapsana communis (nipplewort) 6/15/02 8/16/97
Lemna sp. (duckweed)
Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort) 6/15/02
Lepidium virginicum (wild peppergrass) 6/15/02 8/14/97
Linaria vulgaris (butter-and-eggs) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Lindernia dubia (false pimpernel) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower) 8/05/95
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco lobelia) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Ludwigia palustris (marsh purslane)
Lycopus americanus (water horehound) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Lycopus virginicus (Virginia bugleweed)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife) 8/05/95
Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort) 6/15/02 8/05/95
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife) 6/15/02
Lysimachia terrestris (swamp candles)
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)
Malva neglecta (common mallow) 6/15/02 8/05/95
Matricaria matricarioides (pineapple weed)
Mazus pumilus (mazus)
Medicago lupulina (black medick) 6/15/02 8/16/97
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover) 8/14/97
Mentha arvensis (wild mint) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Mentha piperita (peppermint) 8/14/97
Mimulus ringens (monkey flower) 8/05/95
Mollugo verticillata (carpetweed) 8/16/97
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe)
Myosotis arvensis (field scorpion grass)
Myosotis laxa (lesser forget-me-not) 6/15/02 8/16/97
Myosotis scorpioides (forget-me-not) 6/150/02 8/05/95 8/14/97
Nymphaea odorata (fragrant white water lily) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/16/97
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose) 8/16/97
Oxalis dilennii (yellow wood sorrel) 6/15/02
Oxalis stricta (yellow wood sorrel) 8/16/97
Panax trifolium (dwarf ginseng) 5/21/94
Paronychia canadensis (forked chickweed)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue) 6/15/02
Penthorum sedoides (ditch stonecrop) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Phlox paniculata (summer or garden phlox) 10/17/98
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) 8/16/97
Pilea pumila (clearweed)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/16/97
Plantago major (common plantain)
Podophyllum peltatum (mayapple)
Polygonatum biflorum (smooth Solomon's seal) 6/15/02
Polygonatum pubescens (hairy Solomon's seal)
Polygonum arenastrum (common knotweed) 8/16/97
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose knotweed) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/16/97
Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed) 8/16/97 near
Polygonum lapathifolium (pale smartweed) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Polygonum pensylvanicum (Pennsylvania knotweed) 8/16/97
Polygonum punctatum (dotted smartweed) 8/16/97
Polygonum robustius (robust knotweed) 8/14/97
Polygonum sagittatum (arrow-leaved tearthumb) 8/16/97
Polygonum virginianum (jumpseed knotweed)
Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Portulaca oleracea (common purslane)
Potamogeton sp. (pondweed)
Potentilla argentea (silvery cinquefoil)6/15/02 8/16/97
Potentilla canadensis (dwarf cinquefoil)
Potentilla norvegica (rough cinquefoil) 8/05/95
Potentilla recta (rough-fruited cinquefoil) 6/15/02 8/14/97
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil) 8/05/95
Prenanthes altissima (tall white lettuce)
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/16/97
Ranunculus abortivus (kidney-leaved crowfoot) 5/21/94 6/15/02
Ranunculus acris (tall buttercup) 6/15/02
Ranunculus bulbosus (bulbous buttercup)
Ranunculus recurvatus (hooked crowfoot) 5/21/94
Rorripa palustris (yellow marsh cress) 6/15/02 8/14/97
Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima (black-eyed Susan) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Rudbeckia laciniata (green headed coneflower) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Rudbeckia triloba (thin-leaved coneflower) 8/16/97
Rumex acetosella (sheep sorrel)
Rumex crispus (curled dock)
Rumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock) 8/16/97
Sagittaria latifolia (broad-leaved arrowhead) 8/16/97
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)
Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) 8/14/97
Satureja vulgaris (wild basil) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Saxifraga virginiensis (early saxifrage) 5/21/94
Scleranthus annuus (knawel)
Scutellaria lateriflora (maddog skullcap) 8/05/95
Sedum sp. (garden sedum)
Senecio aurea (golden ragwort) 5/21/94
Silene latifolia (white campion) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/14/97
Silene stellata (starry campion) 8/05/95
Silene vulgaris (bladder campion) 6/15/02
Sisymbrium officinale (hedge mustard) 6/15/02
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal)
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade) 8/16/97
Solidago bicolor (silverrod goldenrod) 8/14/97
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod) 10/17/98
Solidago canadensis v. altissima (tall goldenrod) 8/05/95 8/16/97near
Solidago flexicaulis (zig-zag goldenrod) 10/17/98 8/16/97near
Solidago gigantea (late goldenrod) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod) 8/16/97
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod) 8/16/97soon
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod) 8/16/97
Sparganium androcladum (branching burreed)
Stellaria media (common chickweed)
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/14/97
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadowrue) 8/05/95
Thlaspi perfoliatum (thoroughwort pennycress)
Trifolium pratense (red clover) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/16/97
Trifolium repens (white clover) 6/15/02 8/05/95 8/14/97
Trifolium sp. (least or low hop clover) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Triodanis perfoliata (Venus's looking glass)
Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail)
Urtica dioica v. dioica (stinging nettle) 8/05/95
Urtica dioica v. procera (tall nettle)
Uvularia sessilifolia (sessile-leaved bellwort)
Veratrum viride (swamp hellebore)
Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein) 6/15/02
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) 8/05/95 8/14/97
Verbena hastata (blue vervain) 8/14/97
Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) 8/05/95 8/16/97
Veronica arvensis (corn speedwell)
Veronica officinalis (common speedwell)
Veronica serpyllifolia (thyme-leaved speedwell)
Veronica sp. (speedwell) 5/21/94
Viola cucullata (marsh violet) 5/21/94
Viola conspersa (dog violet) 5/21/94
Viola sororia (common blue violet) 5/21/94
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders) 6/15/02

Rushes:
Juncus effusus (soft rush)
Juncus tenuis (path rush)
Luzula multiflora (wood rush)

Sedges:
Carex blanda (sedge)
Carex cephalophora (sedge)
Carex complanata var. hirsuta (sedge)
Carex crinita (sedge)
Carex flaccosperma (sedge)
Carex laxiflora (sedge)
Carex lurida (sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex stipata (sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge) 8/5/95
Carex swanii (sedge)
Cyperus strigosus (umbrella sedge) 8/14/97
Eleocharis ovata (blunt spike rush)
Scirpus americanus (Olney three-square bulrush) 8/14/97
Scirpus atrovirens (dark-green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (woolly grass bulrush)

Grasses:
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass)
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Danthonia spicata (poverty oat grass)
Digitaria sanguinalis (hairy crab grass)
Echinochloa muricata (barnyard grass) 8/14/97
Elymus riparius (rye grass)
Elytrigia repens (quack grass)
Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue grass)
Festuca rubra (red fescue grass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass)
Panicum clandestinum (deertongue grass)
Panicum commutatum (panic grass)
Panicum polyanthes (panic grass)?
Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass)
Phleum pratense (timothy grass) 8/14/97
Poa annua (annual bluegrass)
Poa compressa (Canada bluegrass)
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)
Setaria viridis (green foxtail grass)

Ferns and Fern Allies:
Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)
Athyrium filix-femina (northern lady fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal wood fern)
Equisetum hyemale (common scouring rush)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Polypodium sp. (rock cap fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York beech fern)
Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern)