PEQUANNOCK WATERSHED
Passaic County, NJ


Directions:

US 287 south; exit at Route 23 N; get off at Echo Lake area where the headquarters are. You have to obtain a permit there and a sticker for your window in order to park in the patrolled parking areas.


Geology:

Echo Lake is where the headquarters are. The Clinton Reservoir and Hank's Pond are to the northeast of Echo Lake. Buckabear Pond is just north of Clinton Reservoir. Bearfort Waters and Terrace Pond are to the north beyond Clinton Reservoir and Hank's Pond.
This is part of the New Jersey Highlands.


History:

The name Pequannock comes from the sub-tribe, Pequannuc.

1826  --  Ironworks here started by William Jackson of Rockaway, NJ. The potential of waterpower provided by Buck and Cedar Ponds was attractive. He purchased nearly 1,000 acres in the area and built a furnace, forge, sawmill and gristmill.
Jackson lost control of the property to James Wheeler.

1833 -- Wheeler sold the works to John F. Winslow and Freeman Wood. They completed the furnace and named their enterprise the Clinton Ironworks.

1836 -- ironworks acquired by Pratt.

1837 - furnace closes down; reason given -- not enough timber for charcoal.  Pratt erected a forge.

1850 -- forge and properties taken over by the Maryland Company; managed by John Raymond and son John, Jr.

1852 -- Maryland Co. abandons all iron making at Clinton.

1900 -- the area becomes part of the Pequannock Watershed Supply System.

The Clinton Furnace is located on the southeast corner off Clinton Road near its intersection with Schoolhouse Cove Road.


Trails:

BWC (yellow) -- off Old Coal Road. Major north-south trail; heads south through laurel patch and grassy slopes to old pipe line. Travels along west bank of Buckabear Pond crossing a log bridge then ending at junction with the CW trail.
FTW (yellow) = starts at P2; 1.9 miles; good view of Cedar Pond and valley below.
FTR (Red/White) = starts 0.4 miles north of P1 off Clinton Road and runs north 2 miles to Bearfort Fire Tower.
HW (Blue/White) Starts on west side of Hanks Pond; mostly level trail; 2.6 miles north to junction with Stephens Road.
HE (white)
HT (blue/diamond)
TB (white)
CW (white)
ELE (white) -- starts near Echo lake boat launch and hugs the shoreline; level trail of 1.8 miles.
ELW (white) -- starts below Gatehouse at Echo Lake at south end, hugs the shoreline for most of trail. level; 1.7 miles.
P = parking lot


PLANT LIST:
Joseph Labriola


Trees:
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Amelanchier arborea (shadbush)
Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (musclewood)
Carya glabra (pignut hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Castanea dentata (American chestnut)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Crataegus sp. (hawthorn)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus nigra (black ash)
Larix decidua (European larch)
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)
Picea abies (Norway spruce)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)
Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore)
Populus alba (white poplar)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Ulmus americana (American elm)

Shrubs:
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry)
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea) in fruit
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush) 8/24/96
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Comptonia peregrina (sweet fern)
Cornus kousa (kousa dogwood)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen)
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Ilex verticillata (winterberry)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry)
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhododendron maximum (great laurel rhododendron)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Ribes triste (red currant)
Rosa carolina (pasture rose)
Rubus alleghaniensis (common blackberry)
Rubus hispidus (swamp dewberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry)
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Sambucus canadensis (common elderberry)
Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry)
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry)
Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple leaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum v. lucidum (smooth arrowwood viburnum)
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)

Vines:
Adlumia fungosa (Allegheny vine) 8/24/96
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut) 8/24/96
Apios americana (ground nut) 8/24/96
Cuscuta sp. (dodder) 8/24/96
Mikania scandens (climbing hempweed) 8/24/96
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Smilax herbacea (carrion flower)
Smilax rotundifolia (round-leaved greenbrier)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)

Herbs:
Acalypha rhomboidea (three-seeded mercury)
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) 8/24/96
Actaea alba (white baneberry)
Agrimonia gryposepala (common agrimony) 8/24/96
Agrimonia pubescens (downy agrimony) 8/24/96
Agrimonia rostellata (woodland agrimony)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) 8/24/96
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting) 8/24/96
Anemone quinquefolia (wood anemone)
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed)
Antennaria neglecta (field pussytoes)
Aralia hispida (bristly sarsaparilla)
Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla)
Arctium lappa (great burdock) 8/24/96
Arisaema triphyllum (jack in the pulpit)
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Aster acuminatus (whorled aster) 8/24/96
Aster cordifolius (heart-leaved aster) 8/24/96
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster) 8/24/96
Aster macrophyllus (large-leaved aster) 8/24/96
Aster pilosus (aster) 8/24/96
Bidens frondosa (devil's beggar ticks) 8/24/96
Bidens sp. (beggar tick)
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) 8/24/96
Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed)
Campanula aparinoides (marsh bellflower) 8/24/96
Carduus nutans? (musk thistle)
Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) 8/24/96
Chelone glabra (white turtlehead) 8/24/96
Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy) 8/24/96
Cichorium intybus (chicory) 8/24/96
Cicuta bulbifera? (bulb-bearing water hemlock) 8/24/96
Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade)
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) 8/24/96
Commelina communis (Asiatic dayflower) 8/24/96
Conyza canadensis (horseweed) 8/24/96
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace) 8/24/96
Decodon verticillatus (swamp loosestrife) 8/24/96
Desmodium glabellum (Dillen's tick trefoil) 8/24/96
Desmodium glutinosum (pointed-leaved tick trefoil) 8/24/96
Desmodium paniculatum (panicled tick trefoil) 8/24/96
Desmodium nudiflorum (naked-flowered tick trefoil) 8/24/96
Desmodium rotundifolium (prostrate tick trefoil) 8/24/96
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink) 8/24/96
Epilobium coloratum (purple-leaf willow herb) 8/24/96
Epipactis helleborine (helleborine orchid)
Erechtites hieraciifolia (pilewort) 8/24/96
Erigeron strigosus (lesser daisy fleabane) 8/24/96
Eriocaulon aquaticum (common pipewort) 8/24/96
Eupatorium aromaticum? (smaller white snakeroot) 8/24/96
Eupatorium fistulosum (trumpetweed) 8/24/96
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted joe-pye-weed) 8/24/96
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot) 8/24/96
Euphorbia maculata (milk purslane)
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod) 8/24/96
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galinsoga ciliata (gallant soldiers) 8/24/96
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw) 8/24/96
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) 8/24/96
Geranium nepalanense (Nepal geranium) 8/24/96
Geum laciniatum (rough avens)
Goodyera pubescens (rattlesnake plantain)
Helianthus decapetalus (thin-leaved sunflower) 8/24/96
Helianthus strumosus (pale-leaved sunflower) 8/24/96
Hieracium paniculatum (panicled hawkweed) 8/24/96
Hypericum mutilum (dwarf St. Johnswort) 8/24/96
Hypericum punctatum (spotted St. Johnswort) 8/24/96
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass) 8/24/96
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) 8/24/96
Iris versicolor (blue flag)
Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce)
Lechea racemulosa (pinweed)
Lespedeza hirta (hairy bush clover) 8/24/96
Lespedeza procumbens (bush clover) 8/24/96
Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs) 8/24/96
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower) 8/24/96
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco) 8/24/96
Lotus corniculatus (birdfoot trefoil) 8/24/96
Ludwigia palustris (marsh purslane)
Lycopus virginicus (Virginia bugleweed) 8/24/96
Lycopus americana (American water horehound) 8/24/96
Lycopus sp. (bugleweed) 8/24/96
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife) 8/24/96
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife)
Lysimachia terrestris (swamp candles)
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)
Medeola virginiana (Indian cucumber root)
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover) 8/24/96
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover) 8/24/96
Monarda didyma (wild bergamot) 8/24/96
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe)
Nuphar variegata (spatterdock) 8/24/96
Nymphaea odorata (fragrant white water lily) 8/24/96
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose) 8/24/96
Opuntia humifusa (prickly pear cactus)
Oxalis stricta (yellow wood sorrel) 8/24/96
Pedicularis canadensis (wood betony)
Pilea pumila (clearweed)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) 8/24/96
Plantago major (common plantain)
Polygonum amphibium v. stipulaceum (water smartweed) 8/24/96
Polygonum amphibium v. emersum (swamp smartweed) 8/24/96
Polygonum arifolium (halberd-leaved tearthumb) 8/24/96
Polygonum biflorum (true Solomon's seal)
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose smartweed) 8/24/96
Polygonum hydropiper (mild water pepper) 8/24/96
Polygonum hydropiperoides (false water pepper) 8/24/96
Polygonum lapathifolium (water pepper knotweed) 8/24/96
Polygonum pensylvanica (pink knotweed) 8/24/96
Polygonum punctatum (dotted knotweed) 8/24/96
Polygonum sagittatum (arrow-leaved tearthumb) 8/24/96
Polygonum scandens (climbing false buckwheat)
Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed) 8/24/96
Potamogeton sp. (pondweed)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Prenanthes trifoliolata (tall rattlesnake root) 8/24/96
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) 8/24/96
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Pyrola rotundifolia (round-leaved pyrola)
Ranunculus acris (tall buttercup) 8/24/96
Ranunculus bulbosus (bulbous buttercup) 8/24/96
Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup) 8/24/96
Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima (black-eyed Susan) 8/24/96
Rumex acetosella (field sorrel)
Rumex crispus (curled dock)
Sagittaria latifolia (broad-leaved arrowhead)
Satureja vulgaris (wild basil) 8/24/96
Silene vulgaris (bladder campion) 8/24/96
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal)
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)
Solidago arguta (goldenrod) 8/24/96
Solidago bicolor (silverrod)
Solidago caesia (blue-stem goldenrod)
Solidago gigantea (tall goldenrod) 8/24/96
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod) 8/24/96
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod) 8/24/96
Solidago rugosa (rough goldenrod) 8/24/96
Spiraea alba v. latifolia (meadowsweet) 8/24/96
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 8/24/96
Thalictrum dioicum (tall meadowrue)
Triadenum virginicum (marsh St. Johnswort) 8/24/96
Trifolium arvense (rabbitfoot clover) 8/24/96
Trifolium aureum (yellow clover) 8/24/96
Trifolium pratense (red clover) 8/24/96
Trifolium repens (white clover) 8/24/96
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot)
Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail)
Utricularia vulgaris (common bladderwort)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)
Verbena hastata (blue vervain) 8/24/96
Verbena urticifolia white vervain 8/24/96
Veronica officinalis (common speedwell)
Viola conspersa (American dog violet)
Viola pubescens (yellow forest violet)
Viola sagittata (arrowhead violet)

Rushes:
Juncus effusus (soft stem rush)
Juncus tenuis (path rush)

Sedges:
Carex laxiflora (sack sedge)
Carex lupulina (sack sedge)
Carex stipata (sack sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Carex vulpinoidea (sack sedge)
Cyperus strigosus (umbrella sedge)
Dulichium arundinaceum (three-way sedge)
Eleocharis sp. (spike rush)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (woolly grass bulrush)

Grasses:
Bromus inermis (smooth brome grass)
Calamagrostis canadensis (Canadian bluejoint grass)
Cinna arundinacea (wood reed grass)
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Digitaria sanguinalis (hairy crab grass)
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple love grass)
Festuca elatior (fowl meadow grass)
Festuca rubra (red fescue grass)
Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass) 8/24/96
Panicum clandestinum (deer tongue grass)
Phleum pratense (timothy grass)
Phragmites australis (tall reed grass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little blue stem grass)
Setaria faberii (Faber's foxtail grass)
Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail grass)

Ferns and Fern Allies:
Equisetum sylvaticum (woodland horsetail)
Lycopodium clavatum (running pine clubmoss)
Lycopodium lucidulum (shining clubmoss)
Lycopodium obscurum (ground pine clubmoss)
Athyrium filix-femina (northern lady fern)
Botrychium dissectum (cut-leaved grapefern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake grapefern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris carthusiana (crested woodfern)
Dryopteris intermedia (spinulose woodfern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal woodfern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Polypodium virginianum (rock cap fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern)
Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern)

Others:
rock tripe lichen


February 17, 1934.  Buckberg and Cedar Pond  Brook. lichens. Trip leader. Raymond H. Torrey.


Pequannock Watershed, Newfoundland, Passaic County, NJ. August 24, 1996.

In the morning it rained, but by the time the group met at Echo Lake, the skies cleared. Some of the plants in bloom around the southwest section of the rocky (puddingstone conglomerate) lake shore were Aster acuminatus, Bidens frondosa, Collinsonia canadensis, Desmodium paniculatum, Hieracium paniculatum, Hypoxis hirsuta, Lobelia inflata, and the aquatic Polygonum v. emersum. Athyrium filix-femina, Botrychium virginianum, Onoclea sensibilis, Osmunda regalis, and Lycopodium lucidulum were also observed here. An interesting species was the woodland horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum), but along the talus slope of Kanouse Mountain Robert Maricic found the highlight of the trip, the drooping, pink-flowered Allegheny vine (Adlumia fungosa), which none of the participants had ever seen in New Jersey.

After lunch the group car-pooled to parking area four, Clinton Road, near a hemlock glen bordering Mossmans Brook. Along the rocky stream corridor, the group found a mass of the very red cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis) accompanied by several blooms of the white turtlehead (Chelone glabra). Along the dry rock ledges by the roadside, the group examined Opuntia humifusa and found in bloom Aster cordifolius, Eupatorium fistulosum and E. maculatum. A plant that drew a lot of attention was bristly sarsaparilla (Aralia hispida) with its very black berries.

A moderate, uphill walk took the group to the secluded glacial Cedar Pond and to the blooms of Apios americana, Campanula aparinoides, Decodon verticillatus, Epilobium coloratum, Eriocaulon sp., Mikania scandens, Nuphar variegatum, Nymphaea odorata, Pontederia cordata, and Triadenum virginicum. The third and fourth interesting club mosses of the day were running pine (Lycopodium clavatum) and the more common tree clubmoss (L. obscurum). Wetland woody species included Cephalanthus occidentalis, Clethra alnifolia, Prunus virginiana, Rhododendron maximum, Spiraea alba, Vaccinium corymbosum, and Viburnum dentatum.

Attendance was 12. The leader was Joseph A. Labriola.