SILVER LAKE
City of White Plains and Town of Harrison, Westchester County, New York


Directions:

Take 287 to exit 8 (the one after the exit for the Westchester Mall) in White Plains. Turn left and then left again as if you were making a U- turn with constant lefts. Then take a right at the light on the service road onto Main Street and then an immediate left onto Silver Lake Street which changes into New Lake Road. This road will take you through the town. Outside the town, make a left turn onto Old Lake Road, and then a right turn into the Silver Lake parking lot.


History:

Silver Lake was in part the scene of action in the Battle of White Plains, October 28, 1776 to November 1, 1776, during the American Revolution.

Before the Third Action of the Battle of White Plains, Washington had placed his left flank under General William Heath just to the west of the southern end of Silver Lake. The right flank was stationed at Purdy Hill under Putnam with Washington himself in the center.

To protect against possible threats, he fortified Merritt Hill, southeast of the center of Silver Lake, across the road. He placed Col. William Malcolm on Merritt Hill with his New York regiment. Also here was Lt. Fenno with one field piece.

During the Third Action of the Battle of White Plains (October 28, 1776), the British light horse appeared in a wheat field at the foot of Merritt Hill. Lt. Fenno fired his field piece and a British horseman pitched from his horse. This resulted in the British Howe deciding to wait for reinforcements.

Before the Fourth Action (November 1, 1776), Heath decided to dig a new redoubt farther up on Hatfield Hill, west of the center of Silver Lake. This area was largely cornfields at the time. Washington had moved his main position northwest of Silver Lake, using the Miller House as his headquarters. (This is presently off the Bronx River Parkway, north of White Plains.)

During the Fourth Action, Howe attacked Hatfield Hill. The British cannonade was answered by an effective American cannonade and the British withdrew.

The area around Silver Lake did not engage in the fighting during the Fifth Action (November 1, 1776), which took place between the British on Travis Hill and the Americans on Miller Hill (northeast and above the Miller House headquarters of Washington). This Fifth Action was the final activity in the Battle of White Plains.

(Source: a pamphlet by Arthur A. Merrill; 1976; The Battle of White Plains with Maps and Chronology. Copyright by Merrill.)

Today in the eastern field overlooking Silver Lake, there is an historical marker dedicated to those who participated in the Battle of White Plains in this area.

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The stone foundations found at Silver Lake were way stations on the Underground Railroad that sheltered the escaping slaves on their way to Canada. Or so it is said.

The park land was acquired in 1924 for a price of $450,000 dollars.

The Harrison town historian, Michael R. Casrella. said the name for the park came from the fact that the lake once had silver leaves. (Gary Kriss, "The Rediscovery of Silver Lake," New York Times, Sunday, June 23, 1985)

The park trail and steps were constructed by members of the Depression-era Work Projects Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps programs. There was a C.C.C. camp in the northwest portion of the preserve during the 1930s.

In 1952 the county gave the town of Harrison a portion of the preserve and the town made it into a local park for use only by its residents.

In an area once known as Negro Hills (now owned by the Mt. Hope A. M. E. Zion Church of White Plains) is a black cemetery, known as Stoney Hill Cemetery. It contains graves of many Civil War veterans, including John Lee Brown, the only Harrison man to die in that conflict.


Trails:

Take the exit from the parking area nearest the road toward Harrison. Follow the trail to the open fields (a monument is on the left in the field). Turn right and head down hill to Silver Lake.

You can follow the trail along the lake to the right (counter clockwise), but then you have to make a right turn somewhere along this edge area and get on the carriage trail. That takes you almost around the lake. Phil Duckett and I walked paralleling the lake, first following the white markers, then the yellow markers, and then the red markers. The red markers take you to near the end of the lake circumference trail. You come to a fence that blocks you from completely going around the lake. Follow the red trail right up onto the ridge above Silver Lake. The red trail goes north and west (mostly north) going through wonderful valleys between hills. It finally comes to a T-intersection, turn right to keep going north toward the Stoney Hill Cemetery. You are now following the Heritage Trail (red, white and blue markers). The trail ends at Stoney Hill Cemetery but you can milk through the cemetery, past the graves, then you can go off-trail to the left over 2 small ridges and then down to an old estate. There is a dam here, with a stone-wall pond edge. The area must have been very nice at one time. There are colonies of bamboo, butter bur, and pachysandra, along with loads of wisteria.

To go back just continue back on the trail you came up but keep going straight, south and southeast. You quickly come back to Silver Lake. Follow the lake circumference back to the parking lot.


PLANT LIST:
Drs. Edward Frankel and Patrick L. Cooney


Trees:
Acer negundo (ash leaf maple)
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)
Amelanchier arborea (shadbush)
Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (musclewood)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)
Carya glabra (pignut hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) 5/08/99 5/15/96
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree) 5/24/93 6/08/96
Magnolia tripetala (umbrella magnolia) old estate near Stoney Hill Cemetery
Morus alba (white mulberry)
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo) 6/08/96
Ostrya virginiana (American hop hornbeam)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore)
Populus alba (white poplar)
Populus deltoides (cottonwood)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Prunus virginiana (choke cherry)
Ptelea trifoliata (wafer ash)
Pyrus malus (apple tree) 5/08/99 5/15/96
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac) 7/9/93
Rhus typhina (dwarf sumac)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Salix caprea (goat willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Tilia americana (American basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)

Shrubs:
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry)
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush) 7/20/93 8/2/93
Cornus alternifolia (alternate-leaved dogwood)
Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood) 6/29/93 9/3/93
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Cornus stolonifera (red osier dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazel)
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus)
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Hydrangea sp. (large hydrangea tree) on old estate near Stoney Hill Cemetery
Ilex opaca (American holly) old estate at Stoney Hill Cemetery
Ilex verticillata (winterberry holly) 6/29/95
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle) 5/08/99 6/08/96
Lonicera tatarica (Tatarian honeysuckle) 5/08/99
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry)
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry)
Myrica pensylvanica (northern bayberry)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pink azalea) 5/24/93
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose) 6/08/96
Rosa palustris (swamp rose) 6/29/93
Rosa rugosa (wrinkled rose)
Rubus alleghaniensis (Allegheny blackberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry)
Rubus sp. (blackberry) 5/24/93 6/29/93
Sambucus canadensis (common elderberry)
Spiraea alba v latifolia (meadowsweet) 9/3/93
Staphylea trifolia (bladdernut) 5/08/99 5/24/93
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry) 5/08/99
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple-leaf viburnum) 6/08/96
Viburnum dentatum (arrowwood) 6/08/96
Viburnum lentago (sweet viburnum) 5/24/93
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)
Vinca minor (periwinkle) 5/15/96

Vines:
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelain berry)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Menispermum canadense (moonseed vine)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Polygonum scandens (climbing false buckwheat)
Smilax glauca (sawbrier)
Smilax herbacea (carrion flower) 6/08/96
Smilax rotundifolia (round-leaved greenbrier)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vitis aestivalis (summer grape)
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)
Wisteria sp. (wisteria) all over the old estate near Stoney Hill Cemetery

Herbs:
Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf ) *
Acalypha rhomboides (three-seeded mercury)
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) 6/17/93 8/17/93
Actaea alba (doll's eyes)
Agalinis purpurea (purple gerardia) 823/97 8/26/93 9/19/93
Agalinis tenuifolia (slender gerardia) 8/17/93 9/19/93
Agrimonia gryposepala (agrimony)
Ajuga reptans (bugleweed) 5/08/99 5/15/96
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) 5/08/99 5/15/96 5/24/93 5/31/94
Allium canadense (wild onion)
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Allium vineale (field garlic)
Amaranthus retroflexus (green amaranth)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (great ragweed) 8/26/93 9/13
Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed)
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut)
Anemone quinquefolia (wood anemone) 5/08/99
Anemone virginiana (thimbleweed)
Anemonella thalictroides (rue anemone) 5/08/99
Antennaria neglecta (field pussytoes)
Antennaria plantaginifolia (plantain-leaved pussytoes)
Anthemis cotula (mayweed)
Apios americana (groundnut)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp) 6/25/93 7/20/93
Arabis canadensis (sicklepod)
Arabis laevigata (smooth rock cress)
Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla) 5/08/99
Arctium lappa (great burdock)
Arctium minus (lesser burdock) 8/2/93 8/8/93 8/17
Arisaema triphyllum (jack-in-the-pulpit) 5/08/99
Artemisia annua (annual wormwood)
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) 7/20/93
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) 6/29/93 7/3/93
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed) 6/29/93 7/20/93
Aster acuminatus (whorled aster)
Aster cordifolius (heart-leaved aster) 10/2/96 10/26/00
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster)
Aster ericoides (heath aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster) 9/09/93 9/19/93
Aster lanceolatus (panicled aster) 10/6/93
Aster novae angliae (New England aster)
Aster paternus (toothed white topped aster)
Aster racemosus (small white aster) 9/13
Aureolaria laevigata (smooth false foxglove)
Aureolaria virginica (downy false foxglove) 8/23/97
Barbarea vulgaris (common winter cress) 5/08/99
Bidens frondosa (beggarticks) 9/13
Bidens laevis (bur marigold)
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle) 7/9/93
Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed) 7/20/93 8/17
Capsella bursa pastoris (shepherd's purse)
Cardamine concatenata (five-parted toothwort)
Cardamine diphylla (broad-leaved toothwort)
Cardamine pensylvanica (Pennsylvania bittercress)
Cardamine rhomboidea (spring cress)
Caulophyllum thalictroides (blue cohosh) 5/08/99 6/29/95 in fruit
Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey tea)
Centaurea jacea (brown knapweed) 7/12/93
Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed)
Centaurea nigra (black knapweed) 8/2/93
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed) 5/24/93 5/31/94
Chelidonium majus (celandine) 5/15/96 5/24/93 6/08/96 10/02/96
Chelone glabra (white turtlehead)
Chenopodium album (pigweed)
Chenopodium ambrosioides (Mexican tea)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum ox-eyed daisy
Cichorium intybus (chicory) 7/9/93 9/19/93
Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade) 6/29/95
Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) 6/29/93 7/3/93
Cirsium discolor (field thistle) 8/8/93 9/19/93
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle)
Claytonia virginica (spring beauty)
Collinsonia canadensis (horse balm)
Commelina communis Asiatic dayflower)
Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort) 6/29/95
Cuscuta gronovii (dodder)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace) 7/9/93 9/19/93
Desmodium glutinosum (pointed-leaved tick trefoil) 8/23/97
Desmodium paniculatum (panicled tick trefoil) 8/08/93 9/3/93
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches)
Dioscorea villosa (wild yamroot vine)
Echinocystis lobata (wild cucumber)
Epifagus virginiana (beech drops)
Epilobium coloratum (eastern willowherb)
Erechtites hieraciifolia (pilewort)
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane) 6/29/95 7/9/93
Erythronium americanum (trout lily)
Eupatorium dubium (eastern joe-pye-weed) 7/20/93 9/13
Eupatorium fistulosum hollow joe-pye-weed
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted joe-pye-weed)
Eupatorium purpureum (sweet joe-pye-weed)
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot) 10/6/93
Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge)
Euphorbia maculatum (spotted spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod) 7/20/93 9/13
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Galinsoga parviflora (quickweed)
Galium aparine (cleavers) 6/08/96
Galium asprellum (rough bedstraw) 6/29/95
Galium mollugo (wild madder)
Galium trifolium (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) 5/08/99 5/24/93
Geranium robertianum (herb Robert)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) 5/24/93
Geum canadense (white avens) 7/9/93
Geum virginianum (rough avens) 6/29/95
Gnaphalium obtusifolium (sweet everlasting) 10/2/96
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower) 6/29/93 9/13
Helianthus decapetalus (thin-leaved sunflower)
Helianthus strumosus (pale-leaved sunflower) 6/29/95
Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket) 5/24/93 6/08/96
Hieracium aurianticum (orange hawkweed) 6/29/95
Hieracium caespitosum (yellow king devil) 6/08/96
Hieracium kalmii (Canada hawkweed)
Hieracium paniculatum (panicled hawkweed)
Hieracium piloselloides (glaucous king devil) 6/ 8/96
Hieracium pratense (field hawkweed) 5/31/94
Hieracium venosum (rattlesnake hawkweed)
Hypericum perforatum (common St. Johnswort)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass) 6/08/96 6/29/95 7/9/93
Impatiens capensis (jewelweed) 8/8/93 9/19/93
Iris pseudacorus (yellow flag)
Iris versicolor (blue flag) 6/08/96
Krigia biflora (two-flowered Cynthia) 5/31/94 6/08/96 6/29/93
Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce) 7/28/93
Lactuca floridana (blue lettuce)
Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce)
Lamium amplexicaule (henbit)
Lamium purpureum (purple dead nettle)
Laportea canadensis (wood nettle)
Lapsana communis (nipplewort) 6/29/95
Lemna minor (duckweed)
Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort) 6/29/93 7/9/93
Lepidium virginicum (pepper grass)
Lespedeza sp. (bush clover)
Lilium canadense (Canada lily) 7/9/93
Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs) 8/2/93 9/19/93
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco lobelia) 8/17
Lobelia syphilitica (giant blue lobelia)
Ludwigia alternifolia (seedbox) 7/09/93 7/20/93
Ludwigia palustris (marsh purslane)
Lycopus americanus (cut-leaf water horehound)
Lycopus virginicus (bugleweed)
Lysimachia ciliata (fringed loosestrife)
Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort)
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife) 6/29/93
Lysimachia terrestris (swamp candles) 6/29/95
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)
Malva neglecta (cheese)
Matricaria matricarioides (pineapple weed)
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover)
Melilotus officinale (yellow sweet clover)
Mimulus ringens (square-stemmed money flower)
Mirabilis nyctaginea (wild four o'clock) 6/29/95
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot)
Monarda didyma (Oswego tea)
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe)
Myosotis scorpioides (forget-me-not)
Myriophyllum demersum (coontail)
Nuphar variegata (spatterdock) 6/08/96 6/29/95
Orchis spectabilis (showy orchid)
Ornithogallum umbellatum (star of Bethlehem) 5/24/93
Orobanche uniflora (one-flowered cancer root)
Osmorhiza claytonii (sweet cicely) 5/24/93
Oxalis europaea (yellow wood sorrel)
Oxalis stricta (common wood sorrel) 6/08/96
Pachysandra terminalis (pachysandra) big colony at old estate near Stoney Hill
Paronychia canadensis (forked chickweed)
Pastinaca sativa (wild parsnip)
Pedicularis canadensis (wood betony)
Phlox paniculata (garden phlox)
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)
Pilea pumila (clearweed)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) 6/29/95
Plantago major (common plantain)
Polygala nuttallii? (Nuttall's milkwort) 6/29/95 8/17
Polygala sanguinea (blood milkwort) 8/23/97 9/13
Polygala verticillata (whorled milkwort)
Polygonatum biflorum (true Solomon's seal)
Polygonatum pubescens (hairy true Solomon's seal) 5/08/99
Polygonum arenastrum (prostrate knotweed)
Polygonum arifolium (tearthumb)
Polygonum caespitosum (cespitose knotweed) 6/08/96 6/29/95 10/02/96 10/26/00
Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed)
Polygonum hydropiperoides (false water pepper)
Polygonum lapathifolium (pale smartweed) 9/3/93
Polygonum pensylvanicum (Pennsylvania smartweed)
Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb knotweed)
Polygonum sagittatum (arrow-leaved tearthumb)
Polygonum virginianum (Virginia knotweed)
Portulaca oleracea (purslane)
Potentilla canadensis (running cinquefoil)
Potentilla recta (rough-fruited cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil) 6/08/96
Prenanthes altissima (tall white lettuce)
Prenanthes serpentaria (lion's foot)
Prenanthes trifoliolata (tall rattlesnake root)
Prenanthes alba (white lettuce)
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) 7/20/93 10/6/93
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (narrow-leaved mountain mint) 6/29/95 8/8/93
Pycnanthemum virginianum (Virginia mountain mint)
Ranunculus abortivus (kidney-leaved crowfoot) 5/08/99
Ranunculus acris (tall buttercup) 5/31/94 6/08/96 6/29/95
Ranunculus bulbosus (bulbous buttercup) 6/08/96
Ranunculus ficaria (lesser celandine)
Ranunculus recurvatus (hooked buttercup) 5/08/99
Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup)
Rudbeckia hirta v pulcherrima (black-eyed Susan) 6/25/93 7/9/93
Rumex acetosella (field sorrel) 5/24/93 5/31/94 6/08/96
Rumex crispus (curled dock) 6/08/96
Rumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)
Sagittaria latifolia (common arrowhead)
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)
Sanicula gregaria (clustered sanicle)
Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) 7/20/93 10/02/96
Satureja vulgaris (wild basil)
Scleranthus annuus (knawel)
Scutellaria lateriflora (maddog skullcap)
Sedum purpureum (stonecrop)
Senecio vulgaris (groundsel)
Silene latifolia (white campion)
Sisymbrium altissimum (tumble mustard)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (stout blue-eyed grass) 6/08/96 6/29/95
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal) 5/24/93
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade) 6/29/95
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)
Solidago bicolor (silverrod goldenrod) 8/23/97 9/3/93 10/02/96
Solidago caesia (blue-stem goldenrod) 10/2/96
Solidago canadensis v (late goldenrod) 7/20/93
Solidago canadensis var. altissima (tall goldenrod)
Solidago canadensis var. canadensis (Canada goldenrod) 9/03/93
Solidago erecta (slender goldenrod) 10/2/96
Solidago flexicaulis (zigzag goldenrod) 10/02/96
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod) 8/2/93 9/3/93
Solidago macrophylla (large-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod) 8/17
Solidago patula (sharp-leaved goldenrod) 8/2/93 9/3/93
Solidago rugosa (rough-stemmed goldenrod) 9/3/93
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod) 9/13
Sonchus arvensis (field sow thistle)
Sonchus asper (spiny-leaved sow thistle)
Sonchus oleraceus (common sow thistle)
Stellaria media (chickweed) 5/08/99
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
Tanacetum vulgare (common tansy)
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 5/08/99 6/8/96
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadowrue) 5/08/99
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadowrue)
Tragopogon pratense (yellow goat's beard)
Trifolium arvense (rabbit's foot clover)
Trifolium aureum (palmate hop clover)
Trifolium campestre (pinnate hop clover)
Trifolium dubium (little hop clover)
Trifolium pratense (red clover) 5/31/94 6/08/96 7/20/93
Trifolium repens (white clover) 5/31/94 7/20/93
Trillium erectum (purple trillium)
Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot)
Typha latifolia (common cat tail)
Urtica dioica v. procera (tall nettle) 8/17
Uvularia sessilifolia (sessile-leaved bellwort) 5/08/99
Veratrum viride (false hellebore)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) 7/20/93
Verbena urticifolia (white vervain) 8/8/93
Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed) 8/17 9/3/93
Veronica filiformis creeping speedwell
Veronica officinalis (common speedwell) 6/08/96
Vicia sativa (common vetch)
Vicia cracca (cow vetch)
Viola arvense (European field pansy)
Viola blanda (sweet white violet)
Viola cucullata (marsh blue violet)
Viola palmata (early blue violet) 5/08/99
Viola pubescens (yellow forest violet)
Viola sororia (common blue violet) 5/08/99 5/15/96
Xanthium strumarium v glabratum (common cocklebur)
(butterbur) big colony at the old estate near Stoney Hill Cemetery

Rushes and Sedges:
Carex crinita (sedge)
Carex laxiflora (loose-flowered sedge)
Carex rosea (sack sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Carex vulpinoidea (sack sedge)
Cyperus strigosus (umbrella sedge)
Juncus tenuis (path rush)
Luzula multiflora (wood rush) 5/08/99
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus validus

Grasses:
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass)
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Digitaria sanguinalis (crabgrass)
Elymus hystrix (bottle brush grass)
Elytrigia repens (quack grass)
Eragrostis spectabilis (purple love grass)
Festuca rubra (red fescue grass)
Glyceria sp. (manna grass)
Holcus lanata (velvet grass) 5/24/93 6/29/95
Leersia virginiana (white cut grass)
Lolium perenne (English rye grass)
Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass)
Muhlenbergia schreberii (nimblewill grass)
Panicum clandestinum (deer-tongue panic grass)
Panicum dichotomiflorum (fall panic grass)
Panicum sp. (panic grass)
Phleum pratense (timothy grass) 6/17/93 6/29/95
Poa annua (annual bluegrass) 5/08/99
Poa compressa (Canada bluegrass)
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)
Schizachyrium scoparius (little blue stem grass)
Setaria faberi (nodding foxtail grass)
Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail grass)
Setaria viridis (green foxtail grass)
Tridens flavus (purple top grass)
(bamboo) big colony at the old estate near Stoney Hill Cemetery

Ferns and Fern Allies:
Adiantum pedatum (maidenhair fern)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Athyrium filix-femina var. rubella (red-stiped lady fern)
Athyrium thelypteroides (silvery glade fern)
Botrychium virginianum (rattlesnake fern)
Cystopteris fragilis (fragile fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris cristata (crested fern)
Dryopteris intermedia (evergreen wood fern)
Dryopteris marginalis (marginal wood fern)
Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass)
Equisetum arvense (field horsetail)
Lycopodium obscurum (ground pine)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern) 5/31/94
Osmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Polypodium virginianum (rockcap fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)
Sellaginella apoda (meadow spikemoss)
Thelypteris hexagonoptera (broad beech fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern)
Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern)


May 18, 1946. Silver Lake, Westchester County

dwarf ginseng
blue cohosh
white baneberry
wild ginger
early blue violet
Viola hastata (yellow violet)
bulbous cress
leader: Farida A. Wiley


May 2, 1948. A trip to one of the few good botanizing areas surviving near New York City. Some 68 species of plants were recorded. The fine display of Orchis spectabilis was the highlight of the trip. Attendance 18. Leader, Farida A. Wiley.


April 23, 1950. We found literally acres of Dicentra cucullaria and Sanguinaria canadensis in full bloom. The wild hydrangea bush is still in good condition Hydrangea arborescens. Farida A. Wiley, attendance 6.