EUGENE AND AGNES MEYER PRESERVE
Mount Kisco, Westchester County, NY
200 acres


Directions:

From exit 3N off US 684. Setting the odometer to 0 at the exit. Turn right at the exit stop sign. At .8 of a mile turn left onto Cox Avenue. Bear right onto Byram Lake Road in another 0.2 miles as Cox Avenue continues left. At 2.4 miles on the odometer turn left onto Oregon Road. At 2.65 miles on the odometer park in the very small parking area.

Exit 4 off I-684. Go west on NY 172 toward Mt. Kisco; left turn (south) onto Sarles Street; 2.7 miles to the intersection of Sarles Street and Bretton Ridge Road. The trial is directly across from the intersection.


The Nature Conservancy; 223 Katonah Avenue, Katonah, NY 10536; (914) 232 9431

This is a wild and rugged preserve with outcroppings and cliffs, a steep hemlock ravine, woodland pools, and many other beautiful features that support an abundance of wildlife.


History:

Eugene Meyer had a mansion known as Seven Springs Center at Mount Kisco. His daughter Katherine mentions in her autobiography that her father had a farm at Mount Kisco.

1875  -- birth of Eugene Isaac Meyer in Los Angeles, California. 

1895  --  Meyer gets his A.B. from Yale University.

1901  -- leaves his job (where his father was a partner) to strike out on his own.  He becomes a very successful speculator.

1910  -- he marries beautiful Barnard graduate Agnes Elizabeth Ernst.

1915  --  by the age of 40, Meyer was worth $40 million dollars.

1917  --  birth of daughter Katherine Meyer (late K. M. Graham, future owner of the Washington Post), the third of five children. Just months after Katharine was born, the Meyers moved from Mount Kisco to Washington, leaving their children behind in the care of nannies.

1930  --   Herbert Hoover promoted him to chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

1933  --  after the election of  Franklin Delano Roosevelt, he resigns from his government posts.

1933  --  Eugene Meyer purchases the Washington Post at a bankruptcy auction.

1938  -- Katherine begins work at the Post.

1940  --  Katherine marries U.S. Supreme Court law clerk Philip L. Graham in Mount Kisco, N.Y.

1945  -- Katherine leaves her job to start a family with husband Phil Graham.  (Katherine was sister-in-law to U.S. Senator from Florida Bob Graham.) 

after WWII  --  President Harry Truman named Meyer head of the World Bank.

1946  -- Eugene Meyer named Katharine's young husband, Phil Graham, publisher

Eugene Meyer was editor and publisher of "The Washington Post" in the 1940s and 1950s.

When the Post went public, Eugene Meyer gave son-in-law Phil the larger share of stock because, as Katherine Meyer Graham wrote, "dad explained to me, no man should be in the position of working for his wife."

1959  -- death of Eugene Meyer at Mount Kisco.

1963  --  Phil Graham committed suicide.  Katherine takes over the newspaper.

1969-1979  -- Katherine was publisher of the newspaper.

1973-1991  -- Katherine served as  chairman of the board.

Originally the Meyer estate in Mount Kisco had been given to Yale University. Yale decided not to keep the estate and transferred it to the Rockefeller University. n (The William T. Golden Page, http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/CarolASThompson/Golden.htm)

1973  -- the preserve owned by The Nature Conservancy.

(Info from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington_Post)

Donald Trump wanted to built an 18-hole golf course next to Byram Lake.  There was, however, a lot of local opposition to the idea from many Mount Kisco residents who feared the golf course would foul the drinking water. Given local resistance to the idea., Trump came up with a different proposal. 

2004 (March) --  billionaire Trump plans to put 17 multimillion-dollar estates at Seven Springs, the 213-acre property bordering Mount Kisco's Byram Lake, a drinking water reservoir in Bedford and North Castle.  Trump also wants to sell two existing homes on the property, including a 38,000-square-foot mansion that once belonged to Eugene Meyer. (Sean Gorman. March 24, 2004. "Trump Tables Golf Course." The Journal News. http://www.nyjournalnews.com/newsroom/032404/a0124mkseven.html)

A problem is that Mr. Trump's "Seven Springs" estate abuts the Eugene and Agnes Meyer Preserve, so one should expect a fight to preserve the area for open space than for more mansions.


Trails:

The Ravine Trail (orange) goes from the parking area.  It goes north along the edge of a swampy area where there is tussock sedge.  It goes through the hemlock ravine where there are lots of spring wildflowers.  You can return either by the Cliff Trail (blue)  (or pick up the Ridge Trail --  red trail -- off the blue trail).  

Or from the Ravine Trail you can pick up the yellow Oregon Trail (west side) that goes in a circle.  

There is another part of the preserve across Oregon Road (sandwiched between Sarles Street on the west and Oregon Road on the east side).  You can reach this area off  Sarles Street or walk north along Oregon Road (turn left onto the red trail that goes in a circle and returns to the starting point).  There is also a yellow trail that heads south in a circle, returning to the red trail.  

10/24/04.  Went out today with the Torrey Botanical Society.  We parked at the Bretton Ridge Road entrance.  We spent the morning exploring the fields finding a lot of goldenrods and asters.  A special highlight for some of the attendees was the hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) which they had not seen before. We then walked to a Phragmites marsh area. We then decided to change habitats and go into the woods.  But before we did this we had lunch.  After lunch we made the circular loop known as the Oregon Trail.  There were not a lot of species in this beech, Norway spruce and hemlock area, but it was a pretty area in which to walk   There were lots of rock outcrops adding to the charm.  Finishing with the circular walk in the woods, we walked along the woods road, the Oregon Road, back to the parking lot.  On the field trip, we found a lot of bumper stickers stuck on the Nature Conservancy signs:  "Developers build in hell!";  "Save the Wild."; and "Eat People, Not Animals." Attendees included Patrick and Rosemary Cooney, Bill Romaine, Sarah-David Rosenbaum, and Augie Matzdorf.  The trip leader was Carol Levine.


PLANT LIST:

Dr. Patrick Louis Cooney


Trees:
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Amelanchier arborea (shadbush) 4/28/95
Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Carpinus caroliniana (musclewood)
Carya cordiformis? (bitternut hickory?)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Castanea dentata (American chestnut)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
Larix decidua (European larch)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree) 5/26/00
Magnolia x soulangiana (saucer magnolia)
Morus alba (white mulberry)
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)
Picea abies (Norway spruce)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Pinus sylvestris (Scotch pine)
Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Pyrus sp. (crab apple)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Tilia americana (American basswood)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)

Shrubs:
Alnus serrulata (smooth alder)
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Cornus racemosa (gray-stemmed dogwood)
Corylus sp. (hazel)
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus)
Forsythia sp. (forsythia)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel) 10/24/04
Ilex verticillata (winterberry holly)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Ligustrum sp. (privet)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush) 4/28/95
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle) 5/15/95
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry)
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry)
Myrica pensylvanica (northern bayberry)
Philadelphus sp. (mock orange)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pinxter flower) 5/26/00 waning
Rhodotypos scandens (jet bead)
Ribes sativum (garden red currant)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
Rubus flagellaris (northern dewberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry)
Rubus sp. (blackberry)
Vaccinium corymbosum (tall blueberry)
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (mapleleaf viburnum)
Viburnum alnifolium (hobblebush viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum (arrowwood viburnum)
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)
Viburnum sp. (unkinown viburnum with large display of red fruit)
Vinca minor (periwinkle)

Vines:
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelain berry)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet) 4/26/00
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) 10/24/04  only a couple of blooms
Mikania scandens (climbing hempweed)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Polygonum scandens (climbing bindweed)
Smilax rotundifolia (round-leaved greenbrier)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)

Herbs:
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) 10/24/04
Actaea alba (doll's eyes)
Aethusa cynapium (fool's parsley)
Agrimonia pubescens (downy agrimony)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) 4/28/95 5/15/95 5/26/00
Allium tricoccum (wild leek)
Allium vineale (field garlic)
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut)
Antennaria plataginifolia (plantain-leaved pussytoes)
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp)
Arabis glabra (tower mustard)
Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla)
Arctium minus (common burdock)
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit)
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asarum canadense (wild ginger)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Aster cordifolius (heart-leaved aster) 10/24/04
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster) 10/24/04
Aster lateriflorus (calico aster) 10/24/04
Aster laevis (smooth aster) 10/24/04
Aster pilosus (aster) 10/24/04
Aster puniceus (purple-stemmed aster) 10/24/04
Aster racemosus (small-headed aster) 10/24/04
Barbarea vulgaris (common wintercress) 5/26/00
Berteroa incana (hoary alyssum) 10/24/04
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold) 4/28/95
Cardamine diphylla (toothwort) 4/28/95 5/15/93
Cardamine pensylvanica (Pennsylvania bittercress) 5/15/95 5/26/00
Cardamine pratensis (cuckoo flower) 10/24/04
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed) 5/26/00
Chelidonium majus (celandine)
Chelone glabra (white turtlehead)
Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade)
Cirsium discolor (field thistle)
Commelina communis (Asiatic day flower)
Cypripedium acaule (pink lady's slipper)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace) 10/06/97
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink) 10/06/97
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches) 4/28/95
Epifagus virginiana (beech drops)
Erigeron sp. (fleabane) 10/24/04
Erythronium americanum (trout lily)
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot)
Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge) 10/24/04
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Galium aparine (cleavers)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium) 5/26/00
Geranium robertianum (herb robert geranium) 5/26/00
Geum canadense (white avens)
Gnaphalium obtusifolium (sweet everlasting) 10/24/04
Goodyera pubescens (rattlesnake plantain)
Hieracium sp. (hawkweed)
Hieracium venosum (rattlesnake hawkweed) 5/26/00
Impatiens capensis (jewelweed)
Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce)
Laportea canadensis (wood nettle)
Lapsana communis (nipplewort)
Lepidium virginicum (poor man's pepper)
Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs) 10/06/97
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco) 10/24/04
Lycopus virginicus (Virginia bugleweed)
Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort)
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower) 5/26/00
Medeola virginiana (Indian cucumber root)
Mitella diphylla (mitrewort) 5/06/93 5/15/95
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe)
Myosotis arvensis (field scorpion grass) 5/26/00
Myosotis scorpioides (larger forget-me-not)
Orchis spectabilis (showy orchid)
Osmorhiza claytonii (sweet cicely)
Oxalis sp. (yellow wood sorrel) 5/26/00 10/24/04
Panax trifolius (dwarf ginseng) 4/28/95 5/06/93 5/15/95
Paronychia canadensis (forked chickweed)
Pilea pumila (clearweed)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain)
Plantago major (common plantain)
Polygonatum pubescens (hairy true Solomon's seal) 5/06/93 5/15/95
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose knotweed) 10/06/97
Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed)
Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb knotweed)
Polygonum sagittatum (arrow-leaved tearthumb)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil) 5/26/00
Prenanthes altissima (tall rattlesnake root)
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) 10/06/97
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Ranunculus acris (tall buttercup) 5/26/00
Ranunculus hispidus (hispid buttercup) 5/15/95
Ranunculus hispidus var. caricetorium (swamp buttercup) 5/15/95
Ranunculus recurvatus (hooked crowfoot)
Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima (black-eyed Susan) 10/24/04
Rumex acetosella (sheep sorrel)
Rumex crispus (curled dock)
Rumex obtusifolius (broad dock)
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)
Satureja vulgaris (wild basil) 10/24/04
Scrophularia lanceolata (American figwort)
Silene latifolia (white campion) 10/24/04
Silene vulgaris (bladder campion)
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal) 5/26/00
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod) 10/24/04
Solidago flexicaulis (zig-zag goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-stemmed goldenrod) 10/24/04
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod) 10/06/97 10/24/04
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) 5/26/00
Thalictrum pubescens (tall meadow rue) 5/06/93
Trientalis borealis (starflower)
Trifolium pratense (red clover) 10/06/97
Trillium erectum (red trillium) 4/28/95 5/15/95
Tussilago farfara (colts foot)
Urtica dioica var. dioica (stinging nettle)
Uvularia sessilifolia (sessile-leaved bellwort)
Veratrum viride (swamp hellebore) 5/26/00
Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)
Veronica serpyllifolia (thyme-leaved speedwell) 5/26/00
Veronica simplex (common speedwell)
Viola cucullata (marsh blue violet) 4/28/95 5/15/95
Viola blanda (sweet white violet) 4/28/95 5/15/95
Viola sororia (common blue violet) 5/06/93 5/15/95
(a narrow-leaved vetch)

Rushes:
Juncus tenuis (path rush)
Luzula multiflora (wood rush)

Sedges:
Carex crinita (fringed sedge)
Carex intumescens (bladder sedge)
Carex laxiflora type (loose-flowered sedge type)
Carex lurida (sallow sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge) 4/28/95
Cyperus sp. (nut or umbrella sedge)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (woolly grass bulrush)

Grasses:
Agrostis sp. (bent grass)
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass)
Bromus inermis (smooth brome grass)
Bromus sp. (brome grass)
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Elymus virginicus (Virginia wild rye grass)
Elytrigia repens (quack grass)
Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass)
Panicum clandestinum (deer-tongue grass)
Phleum pratense (Timothy grass)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Poa annua (annual bluegrass)
Poa compressa (Canada bluegrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little blue stem grass)
Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail grass)
Tridens flavus (purple top grass)

Ferns and fern allies:
Equisetum arvense (field horsetail)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris sp. (spinulose type fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Polypodium sp. (rock cap fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern)



Trip of 10/24/04.

Trees:
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Betula lenta (black birch)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood)
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
Larix decidua (European larch)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Morus alba (white mulberry)
Picea abies (Norway spruce)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Pinus sylvestris (Scotch pine)
Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Pyrus sp. (crab apple)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Tilia americana (American basswood)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Ulmus sp. (elm)

Shrubs:
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Cornus racemosa (gray-stemmed dogwood)
Corylus sp. (hazel)
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus)
Forsythia sp. (forsythia)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel) 10/24/04
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Ligustrum sp. (privet)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle)
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry)
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry)
Myrica pensylvanica (northern bayberry)
Philadelphus sp. (mock orange)
Rhodotypos scandens (jet bead)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
Rubus flagellaris (northern dewberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry)
Rubus sp. (blackberry)
Vaccinium corymbosum (tall blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (maple-leaf viburnum)
Viburnum sp. (unknown viburnum with large display of red fruit)

Vines:
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelain berry)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) 10/24/04  only a couple of blooms
Mikania scandens (climbing hempweed)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Polygonum scandens (climbing bindweed)
Smilax rotundifolia (round-leaved greenbrier)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vitis sp. (grape)

Herbs:
Achillea millefolium (yarrow) 10/24/04
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard)
Allium vineale (field garlic)
Amphicarpaea bracteata (hog peanut)
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp)
Arabis glabra (tower mustard)
Arctium minus (common burdock)
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed)
Aster cordifolius (heart-leaved aster) 10/24/04
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster) 10/24/04
Aster lateriflorus (calico aster) 10/24/04
Aster laevis (smooth aster) 10/24/04
Aster pilosus (aster) 10/24/04
Aster puniceus (purple-stemmed aster) 10/24/04
Aster racemosus (small-headed aster) 10/24/04
Berteroa incana (hoary alyssum) 10/24/04
Cardamine pratensis (cuckoo flower) 10/24/04
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed)
Chelidonium majus (celandine)
Cirsium discolor (field thistle)
Commelina communis (Asiatic day flower)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace)
Erigeron sp. (fleabane) 10/24/04
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot)
Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge) 10/24/04
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Galium aparine (cleavers)
Geum canadense (white avens)
Gnaphalium obtusifolium (sweet everlasting) 10/24/04
Hieracium sp. (hawkweed)
Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce)
Lapsana communis (nipplewort)
Lepidium virginicum (poor man's pepper)
Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs)
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco) 10/24/04
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe)
Oxalis sp. (yellow wood sorrel) 10/24/04
Penstemon sp. (beard tongue)
Pilea pumila (clearweed)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain)
Plantago major (common plantain)
Polygonatum sp. (true Solomon's seal) 
Polygonum cespitosum (cespitose knotweed) 10/24/04
Polygonum sagittatum (arrow-leaved tearthumb)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal)
Pyrola elliptica (shinleaf)
Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima (black-eyed Susan) 10/24/04
Rumex acetosella (sheep sorrel)
Rumex crispus (curled dock)
Rumex obtusifolius (broad dock)
Satureja vulgaris (wild basil) 10/24/04
Silene latifolia (white campion) 10/24/04
Silene vulgaris (bladder campion)
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle)
Solidago caesia (blue-stemmed goldenrod) 10/24/04
Solidago rugosa (rough-stemmed goldenrod) 10/24/04
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod) 10/24/04
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
Trifolium pratense (red clover)
Urtica dioica var. dioica (stinging nettle)
Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)
Veronica simplex (common speedwell)
(a narrow-leaved vetch)

Rushes:
Juncus tenuis (path rush)

Sedges:
Carex laxiflora type (loose-flowered sedge type)
Carex lurida (sallow sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Cyperus sp. (nut or umbrella sedge)
Scirpus atrovirens (dark green bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (woolly grass bulrush)

Grasses:
Bromus inermis (smooth brome grass)
Bromus sp. (brome grass)
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Elymus sp. (wild rye grass)
Elytrigia repens (quack grass)
Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass)
Panicum clandestinum (deer-tongue grass)
Phleum pratense (Timothy grass)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little blue stem grass)
Setaria glauca (yellow foxtail grass)
Tridens flavus (purple top grass)

Ferns and fern allies:
Equisetum arvense (field horsetail)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris sp. (spinulose type fern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Polypodium sp. (rock cap fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern)