INWOOD HILL PARK

Manhattan, NY


Directions:

Take the A train to 207th street. Exit at 207th Street (the back of the train) and walk west two blocks to Seaman Avenue. If you want to visit the marsh, walk into the park and then north along the wall, around the baseball fields, and you'll see it.

The 1 and 9 train (215th Street Station) and several buses also stop nearby. From the 1/9, walk north on Tenth Avenue to 218th Street, then turn left (west) across Broadway. It's four blocks to the end of the street, and you're at the park. By bus, from the Bronx, take the Bx12 (take one marked "Inwood") or the Bx7 to Isham (211th Street) and Broadway; from upper Manhattan, take the M100.

Driving might work during the week; on weekends and holidays there's nowhere to park. If you want to drive anyway, take the Henry Hudson Parkway over the Spuyten Duyvil Bridge and then get off at the Dyckman Street Exit. Turn left at the stop sign on Dyckman. Go up to Seaman Avenue and turn left. Proceed past 207 Street to the corner of Seaman Avenue and Isham Street and find a parking space. The park entrance is on the left of Seaman Avenue.


Geology:

A ridge of dolomite begins an upward thrust around Dyckman Street, and becomes visible in the limestone face along the Spuyten Duyvil's Bronx shore.

Inwood Hill Park is the most northerly part of Manhattan. Inwood marble of the Manhattan Prong, which is named for good exposures in Inwood Hill Park. The course of the Bronx River, like most of the rivers in the Manhattan Prong, follows a narrow band of weak Inwood marble, named for good exposures in Inwood Park in northern Manhattan.

The rock on the main ridge is hornblende schist.


History:

The plague in the park tells of the Shorakkapoch legend. Site of the principal Manhattan Indian village. Peter Minuit in 1626 purchased Manhattan. The Reckgawawanc Indians lived here. Dedicated January 1954.

Source: Barlow. 1971. Chapter 4.

The Wick-quas-keeks occupied northern Manhattan. They were a branch of the Wappinger tribe (headquartered at Dobbs Ferry), members of the Mohican group of the Algonquin nation.

1609 -- Henry Hudson sails up the Hudson River to Albany. Two members of the trip taken on board as captives; they jumped overboard, one drowning. On return down the Hudson River the ship was attacked by the Wick-quas-keeks here. Six or seven tribe members were killed.

1625 -- Peter Minuit purchased Manhattan Island somewhere near the cold spring here

1643 -- Wick-quas-keeks attached by the Mohawk Indians; the former fled to Pavonia, where the forces of Governor William Kieft set upon them, as massacre occurring. Indians retaliate by looting and burning Dutch farms.

1655 -- war party assembled here to raid Fort Amsterdam; repelled from their stronghold, the Indians pillaged the outpost farms, massacred the men and took more than a hundred women and children (later returned for a ransom)

1658 -- settlers return with the coming of English control of the area; the tribe was now mostly up in what became Rockland County but they still came down to hunt and fish on their ancestral lands around Inwood Hill

1677 -- Spuyten Duyvil lowland divided among the freeholders of New Harlem (largest areas going to Jan Dyckman and Jan Nagel)

1686 -- an organized hunt wipes out the wolves on Fort Washington Ridge

1715 -- last of the Indians finally expelled from Inwood Hill. Northern portion owned by Nagels and southeast section owned by Dyckman.

1775-1783 -- Revolutionary War; British take Forts Tryon and Washington with Washington watching across the Hudson River from Fort Lee

On top of the ridge was the House of Mercy, a home for delinquent girls.

1895 -- Inwood Hill Park acquisition proposed

1912 -- northern tip of the hill sold to a private dock company; plans fell through for construction of docks and warehouses; land went to a land speculator

1914 -- land speculators offers to sale the land to New York City
1916 -- Inwood Hill officially designated a park
1930s -- paths put in by WPA
1938 -- historical tulip tree damaged in hurricane and removed
1967 -- lighting installed along pathways
1968 -- nature trail (but soon vandalized)


PLANT LIST:

Judith Fitzgerald and various people


Trees:
Acer negundo (box elder) 4/28/01
Acer platanoides (Norway maple) 4/28/01
Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Acer spicatum (mountain maple)
Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)
Amelanchier canadensis (shadbush) 4/28/01
Betula lenta (black birch)
Betula nigra (river birch) planted
Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)
Carpinus caroliniana (musclewood)
Carya glabra (pignut hickory)
Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory)
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Catalpa bignonioides (common catalpa)
Celtis occidentalis (American hackberry)
Cercis canadensis var. canadensis (redbud) 4/28/01 planted
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) 4/28/01
Crataegus sp. (hawthorn) 4/28/01
Fagus grandifolia (American beech)
Fagus sylvatica (European beech)
Fagus sylvatica v. purpurea (copper beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Fraxinus americana v. biltmoreana (biltmore ash)
Ginkgo biloba (ginko)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Juglans cinerea (butternut walnut)
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)
Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree)
Maclura pomifera (osage orange)
Morus alba (white mulberry)
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)
Paulownia tomentosa (royal paulownia)
Phellodendron amurense (amur cork tree)
Pinus nigra (Austrian pine)
Pinus resinosa (red pine)
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Platanus x hybrida (occidentalis x orientalis) (London plane)
Populus deltoides (cottonwood)
Prunus avium (bird cherry) 4/28/01
Prunus pendula ‘Pendula Rubra' (pink weeping cherry) 4/28/01
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Prunus sp. (Cherry, hort.) 4/28/01
Pyrus baccata (Siberian crab apple) 4/28/01
Pyrus communis (pear)
Pyrus coronaria (wild crab apple)
Pyrus malus (apple) 4/28/01
Pyrus persica (peach)
Pyrus sp. (crab apple tree)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak) 4/28/01
Quercus prinus (chestnut oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak) 4/28/01
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)
Salix babylonica (weeping willow)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Salix pentandra (bay-leaved willow)
Salix sp. (willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Sophora japonica (Japanese pogoda tree)
Tilia americana (American basswood) 4/28/01
Tilia x europaea (European basswood)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Ulmus alata (winged elm)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)

Shrubs:
Acanthopanax sieboldianus (five fingered aralia)
Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry)
Baccharis halimifolia (groundsel tree)
Berberis sp. (barberry, hort.)
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood)
Cornus mas (cornelian cherry dogwood)
Cornus racemosa (gray-stemmed dogwood)
Cornus sericea (red-osier dogwood)
Deutzia sp. (deutzia)
Diervilla lonicera (bush honeysuckle)
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus)
Forsythia x intermedia (forsythia) 4/28/01
Gaylussacia frondosa (dangleberry)
Hamamelis vernalis (spring-time witch hazel)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Hydrangea paniculata (Asiatic hydrangea)
Ilex glabra (inkberry)
Iva frutescens (marsh elder)
Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel)
Ligustrum vulgaris (common privet)
Lindera benzoin (spice bush) 4/28/01
Lonicera maackii (honeysuckle)
Lonicera sp. (honey suckle)
Lonicera tatarica (Tatarian honeysuckle)
Lycium barbarum (matrimony vine)
Myrica pensylvanica (bayberry)
Pachysandra terminalis (pachysandra) 4/28/01
Philadelphus coronarius (sweet syringa mock orange)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pinxter flower)
Rhododendron sp. (rhododendron)
Rhodotypos scandens (jetbead) 4/28/01
Ribes sativum (garden currant) 4/28/01
Rhus copallina (winged sumac)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac)
Ribes americanum (wild currant)
Rosa carolina (Carolina rose)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
Rubus alleghaniensis (common blackberry)
Rubus idaeus (red raspberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)
Rubus odoratus (purple-flowering raspberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry)
Sambucus canadensis (common elderberry)
Symphoricarpos albus (snowberry)
Syringa vulgaris (common lilac)
Vaccinium spp. (blueberry)
Viburnum acerifolium (mapleleaf viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum v lucidum (northern arrowwood viburnum)
Viburnum opulus (guelder-rose)
Viburnum opulus var. americanum (highbush cranberry viburnum)
Viburnum plicatum (double-flowering viburnum)
Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)
Viburnum sieboldii (Siebold's viburnum)
Vinca minor (periwinkle) 4/28/01
Xanthorhiza simplicissima (shrub yellowroot)

Vines:
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (porcelain berry)
Apios americana (groundnut)
Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis terniflora (yam-leaved clematis)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Convolvulus sp. (bindweed)
Cuscuta sp. (dodder)
Hedera helix (English ivy)
Humulus japonicus (Japanese hops)
Humulus lupulus (common hops)
Ipomoea sp. (morning glory)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Menispermum canadense (Canada moonseed)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Polygonum scandens (false buckwheat)
Rubus flagellaris (dewberry)
Sicyos angulatus (bur cucumber)
Strophostyles umbellata (wild bean)
Smilax glauca (sawbrier)
Smilax rotundifolia (roundleaf greenbrier)
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vincetoxicum nigrum (black swallowwort)
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)
Vitis riparia (river bank grape)
Wisteria floribunda (Japanese wisteria)

Herbs:
Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf)
Acalypha rhomboidea (three-seeded mercury)
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)
Aegopodium podagraria (goutweed)
Aethusa cynapium (fool's parsley)
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) 4/28/01
Allium canadense (wild onion)
Allium schoenoprasum (chives)
Allium vineale (field garlic)
Amaranthus cannabinus (water hemp)
Amaranthus retroflexus (green amaranth)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)
Ambrosia trifida (great ragweed)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo)
Apocynum spp. (dogbane)
Arabis spp. (rockcress)
Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla)
Aralia racemosa (spikenard)
Arctium minus (common burdock)
Arisaema triphyllum (jack-in-the-pulpit)
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort )
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed)
Aster cordifolius (heart-leaved aster)
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster )
Aster ericoides (heath aster)
Barbarea vulgaris (common wintercress)
Bidens coronata (tickseed sunflower)
Bidens sp. (beggar-tick)
Bidens tripartita (bur marigold)
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle)
Camassia scilloides (wild hyacinth)
Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse) 4/28/01
Cardamine concatenata (cut-leaved toothwort) 4/28/01
Cardamine diphylla (toothwort)
Cerastium spp. (chickweed)
Chelidonium majus (celandine) 4/28/01
Chenopodium album (pigweed)
Chenopodium ambrosioides (Mexican tea)
Chenopodium gigantospermum (maple-leaved goosefoot)
Chrysanthemum parthenium (feverfew)
Cichorium intybus (chicory)
Circaea lutetiana (enchanter's nightshade)
Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle)
Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle)
Claytonia virginica (spring beauty) 4/28/01
Cleome spinosa (spider flower)
Commelina communis (Asiatic dayflower)
Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley)
Conyza canadensis (horseweed)
Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort)
Cymbalaria muralis (kenilworth ivy)
Datura stramonium (jimson weed)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace)
Desmodium spp. (tick-trefoil)
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink)
Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's breeches) 4/28/01
Elsholtzia ciliata (elsholtzia)
Epilobium sp. (willowherb)
Epipactis helleborine (helleborine)
Erechtites hieraciifolia (pilewort)
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane)
Erysimum cheiranthoides (wormseed mustard)
Erythronium americanum (trout lily)
Eupatorium purpureum (sweet-scented joe-pye-weed)
Eupatorium rugosum (white snakeroot)
Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Galanthus nivale (snow drops) 3/23/02
Galinsoga ciliata (gallant soldier)
Galium aparine (cleavers) 4/28/01
Galium asprellum (rough bedstraw)
Galium mollugo (wild madder)
Galium sp. (bedstraw)
Geranium bicknellii (Bicknell's cranesbill)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium)
Geranium robertianum (herb robert geranium)
Geranium sibiricum (Siberian geranium)
Geum canadense (white avens)
Glechoma hederacea (gill over the ground)
Hackelia virgfiniana (Virginia stickseed)
Helianthus decapetalus (thin-leaved sunflower)
Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke )
Hemerocallis fulva (day lily)
Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket )
Hibiscus moscheutos (swamp rose mallow)
Hibiscus moscheutos forma peckii (crimson-eyed rose mallow)
Hieracium aurantiacum (orange hawkweed)
Hypericum perforatum (common St. Johnswort)
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed)
Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce)
Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce)
Lamium amplexicaule (henbit)
Lamium purpureum (purple dead nettle) 4/28/01
Leonurus cardiaca (motherwort)
Lepidium campestre (field peppergrass)
Lepidium virginicum wild peppergrass )
Linaria vulgaris (butter-and-eggs)
Lotus corniculatus (bird-foot trefoil)
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)
Matricaria matricarioides (pineapple weed)
Medicago lupulina (black medick) 4/28/01
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover)
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe)
Narcissus pseudonarcissus (daffodil) 4/28/01
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Oenothera fruticosa (sundrops)
Ornithogallum umbellatus (star of Bethlehem)
Orobanche uniflora one-flowered (cancerroot)
Oxalis spp. (yellow wood sorrel)
Pastinaca sativa (wild parsnip)
Physalis heterophylla clammy (ground cherry)
Physalis pubescens (downy ground cherry)
Physalis longifolia v subglabrata (longleaf ground cherry)
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)
Pilea pumila (clearweed)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain)
Plantago major (common plantain)
Plantago rugelii (pale plantain)
Podophyllum peltatum (may apple)
Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon's seal)
Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed)
Polygonum pennsylvanicum (Pennsylvania smartweed)
Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb)
Polygonum virginianum (jumpseed)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Prenanthes altissima (tall white lettuce)
Prenanthes trifoliolata (tall rattlesnake root)
Prunella vulgaris (self-heal)
Ranunculus ficaria (lesser celandine) 4/28/01
Rumex crispus (curled dock)
Rumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)
Rumex pallidus (seabeach dock)
Rumex sp. (dock)
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)
Sanicula marilandica (black snakeroot)
Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet)
Scrophularia marilandica (Maryland figwort)
Sedum spp. (stonecrop) perhaps Sedum sarmentosum
Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel) 4/28/01
Silene vulgaris (bladder campion)
Silene latifolia (evening lychnis)
Silene stellata (starry campion)
Sisymbrium officinale (hedge mustard)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (stout blue-eyed grass)
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal)
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle)
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)
Solidago bicolor (silverrod)
Solidago caesia blue-stemmed goldenrod )
Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod )
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod )
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod )
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod )
Solidago rugosa (rough-stemmed goldenrod )
Solidago sempervirens (seaside goldenrod)
Sonchus oleraceus (common sow thistle)
Stellaria media (chickweed) 4/28/01
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion)
Thalictrum dioicum (early meadowrue)
Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress)
Tragopogon pratensis (yellow goat's beard )
Trifolium campestre (low hop clover)
Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover)
Trifolium pratense (red clover)
Trifolium repens (white clover) 4/28/01
Trillium cernuum (nodding trillium) 4/28/01 near
Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot)
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle)
Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) planted
Verbascum blattaria (moth mullein)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)
Verbena hastata (blue vervain)
Verbena urticifolia (white vervain)
Vernonia noveboracensis (New York ironweed )
Veronica sp. (speedwell)
Viola sororia (common blue violet) 4/28/01
Viola sororia cultivar (confederate violet) 4/28/01
Yucca filamentosa (Adam's needle)

Rushes and Sedges:
Carex amphibola (narrow-leaf sedge)
Carex laxiflora (sedge) 4/28/01
Carex nigro-marginata (black-bordered sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge) 4/28/01
Carex rosea (sedge)
Juncus tenuis (path rush)
Luzula multiflora (wood rush)

Grasses:
Aira spp. (hair grass)
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass) 4/28/01
Aristida spp. (three-awn grass)
Arrhenatherum elatius (tall oatgrass)
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Digitaria ischaemum (smooth crab grass)
Digitaria sanguinalis (northern crab grass)
Festuca elatior (tall fescue)
Hierocloe odorata (holy grass)
Holcus lanatus (velvet grass)
Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass)
Panicum clandestinum (deer tongue grass)
Panicum spp. (panic grass)
Phleum pratensis (timothy grass)
Phragmites australis (tall reed grass)
Poa annua (annual bluegrass) 4/28/01
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass)
Setaria spp. (foxtail grass)
Tridens flavus (redtop grass)

Ferns and Fern Allies:
Equisetum arvense (field horsetail)
Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort)
Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern)
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)
Dryopteris campyloptera (spinulose woodfern)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern)
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)
Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York fern)
Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern)


March 9, 1930.  

47 members and guests present.  Before skirting Inwood's northern shore line, we stopped to study some of the winter buds of:

Ailanthus glandulosa
Morus alba
Quercus alba var latiloba
Quercus velutina
Quercus bicolor
Quercus coccinea
Nyssa sylvatica

This surprising group at 204th Street and 10th Avenue constitutes one of the few remaining stands of native growth on northern Manhattan. Typical of the fast disappearing vacant lots of Gotham, here were colonies of Ailanthus, with the Ailanthus silk-moth cocoons (Philosamia walkeri) festooned about and dangling within easy reach, offering particular delight to some of the younger members of our group. . . .

As we went through Cooper Street, a Japan Pagoda Tree (Sophora japonica) was an object of unusual interest to many who had never before seen this valuable tree. . . . A good specimen of Broussonetia papyrifera near by was also illuminating to the student, inasmuch as this particular tree showed to advantage both opposite and alternate buds.

Passing over much historic ground we entered Inwood Park where close by as recently as 1925 was unearthed the lower jaw of a mastodon. The commencement of the magnificent stand of tulip trees greeted our sight here, and several cameras were focused on a most unique object, a young black birch growing out of the trunk of one of these superb Liriodendrons. We examined the very beautiful bursting buds on Ulmus fulva, noted the tortuous branching of old Sassafras trees, and found the new plants of Leonurus cardiaca. Paulownias with their upright paniculate flower bud clusters attracted attention.

The marsh on the way to the "Great Tree" was resplendent with the staminate catkins of Alnus rugosa; and we were surprised to com upon Symplocarpus foetidus in an advanced stage. In all likelihood this is the last showing of the species on Manhattan Island. Presently we came to Shora-kap-kok, the dell which is replete with Indian lore and where there is now an Indian Museum. The museum was opened for us, and Mr. Reginald Pelham Bolton, historian of Inwood, told of the efforts to preserve the spot and to bring back some of the wild flower life to the region.

Spirits were high and the day fair, and many who had not before crossed these paths marveled at the variety of woody plants: the splendid oaks, noticeably Quercus montana, also Q borealis and Q velutina; here a brilliant Cornus amomum or there a Benzoin aestivale about ready to flower, and revealing on careful search the cocoons of the Promethea moth. Further search brought to view a few Cecropias near by.

Upon reaching the extreme northern limit of Inwood Hill, we passed a number of fine ornamental trees, remnants of another era: Pinus nigra, showing the "scars" of the yellow bellied sapsucker, an interesting Fraxinus excelsior with its black winter buds, Magnolia soulangeana, and Pinus sylvestris. Helene Lunt pp. 54-57.


May 3, 1936.

In alternate sunshine and thunder showers, ten members and guests of the Club explored the ledges and valley of Inwood park, Manhattan, on Sunday afternoon, May 3. Sixty-three species of woody plants were seen, of which twenty-five were in bloom. Of these, the most conspicuous was the cloud of fragile white flowers of the shadbush (Amelanchier canadensis), and the most interesting were the greenish flowers of the hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), with their curious horn-like stigmas, long-pointed and recurved.

The fine stands of oaks on the hillsides, and the tall tulip trees in the Glen appear to be but slightly affected by the extensive draining, grading, and road-building operation which are still in progress. But the delicate herbaceous plants in Shor-a-kapkok Glen are fast retreating before the advance of the steam shovel. Despite the "improvements," however, the Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra cucullaria) seems to be holding its ground, for a number of fruiting plants were found, as well as a few belated flowers. The robust jack in the pulpit, too (Arisaema triphyllum), is determined, apparently, to survive. Several patches of toothwort (Dentaria laciniata) were in bloom, and one plant of D diphylla. The blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) was in flower, but very few specimens were seen.

The famous old giant tulip tree near the spring, now in the last stages of decrepitude, still stands at the edge of Spuyten Duyvil. But only the glacial potholes at the head of the Glen, together with the Indian caves in the shelter of Cock hill cliff, remain unchanged by the swirl of progress around them. Trip leader was Hilda Vilkomerson.


April 30, 1949.

Ten Torrey members and guests joined in the botanical trip to Inwood Hill Park in the northwestern corner of Manhattan island.

J. K. Small, in an article entitled "The jungles of Manhattan island -- II" (Journal N Y Bot Garden 38: 308-316, 1937) listed the trees and shrubs of the area. A careful survey of Inwood Hill would certainly discover many additional species not noted by Small. These might serve as the subject of a short supplement, which would be not only interesting in itself but also, in a retroactive way, enhance the value of Small's census. For instance, the deerberry and the lowbush blueberry were listed by Small, but not Vaccinium corymbosum and Vaccinium atrococcum observed by the group.

On the top of a hill was seen Lyonia mariana, which the writer first noticed there in 1936. Small listed the flowering dogwood, but missed Cornus racemosa (C. panicualata). We stopped to examine this species because of its peculiar leaf-scars which are deciduous in the springtime like those of Hamamelis. Cornus rugosa (C circinata) is quite rare in the area, and Small's oversight of it is understandable. We suspect that the introduction in Inwood Hill park of Rubus phoenicolasius and Ribes sativum (the Common R vulgare of manual, the anther sacs being separated by a broad connective) must have antedate Small's study, but these two were missed.

Small's paper dealt with only the woody plants. It should be profitable to publish on the herbaceous flora of Inwood Hill park. This park and Fort Washington Park are the only two remaining wild areas of appreciable size in Manhattan, a d a complete list of their plants could have historical interest not far in the future.

The TBC noticed quite a number of flowers on the April 30th trip. Especially attractive were large colonies of Dentaria diphylla and Alliaria officinalis. On the east face of an old stone wall grew a beautiful cover of Linaria cymbalaria. The writer has seen the kenilworth ivy o the same mossy wall since at least 1933, the same miniature violet dragon heads, two yellow spotted in front and sharp spurred behind. A close group of Podophyllum peltatum formed a low continuous canopy of shield shaped leaves, which when lifted revealed the large, white waxy flowers, nodding and richly fragrant. In the center of each blossom . . .

Another interesting observation for the Torrey group was the seedling habit of Acer pseudopalatanus. Notwithstanding its ditcotyledonous classification, specimens were observed with three and four cotyledon leaves in a whorl, and sometimes tow with one deeply cleft. Judging from the nervature, the bilobed form is apparently best interpreted as two partly united cotyledons.

On the way out of the park, near the end of our trip, we saw along the walk a plantation of Quercus ilicifolia. The many dangling catkins presented an unusual and especially charming effect, being almost at eye level because of the scrub habit of the oaks. It is recommended that the trip be repeated next year and a detailed list be kept of the species seen. Leader Joseph Monachino.


April 20, 1958. The hundreds of Benzoin (Lindera) or spicebush that were in full bloom made the walk of particular pleasure. The group was interested to find cut-leaf toothwort (Dentaria laciniata) in bloom but crinkleroot or two-leaved toothwort (Dentaria diphylla) was just in bud. There seemed to be a number of stands of these two plants. Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra cucullaria) was found blossoming, but it is thought that his wild flower is not growing in such abundance as it was several years ago. Kenilworth ivy (Cymbalaria muralis) was found in its accustomed place, covering a considerable portion of a stone foundation and its delicate blossom was admired. It is always a pleasure to rediscover this ivy. Very few birds were sighted. Attendance 17. Leader, Jane Meyer.


Fort Tryon and Inwood Hill Parks, Manhattan, New York City, N.Y. April 20, 1996.  The gardens at Fort Tryon Park had a great number of blooms creating a very pleasant atmosphere. Some of the planted species in bloom included Korean rhododendron, flowering quince, Johnny jumpups, glory of the snow, and candy tuft.

Non-horticultural species in bloom included spicebush (Lindera benzoin), periwinkle (Vinca minor), Norway maple (Acer platanoides), lesser celandine (Ranunculus ficaria), common blue violet (Viola soraria), purple dead nettle (Lamium purpureum), and groundsel (Senecio vulgaris).

At Inwood Hill Park the most impressive species because of its numbers was Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra cucullaria), which almost covered one of the hills with its white blooms. A real standout was Kenilworth ivy (Cymbalaria muralis, Scrophulariaceae), which we found growing on an abandoned mortared wall. It has light violet flowers arranged in a two over three pattern.

Other species blooming in the park included cornelian cherry dogwood (Cornus mas) and gill- over-the-ground (Glechoma hederacea), as well as red and Norway maple (Acer rubrum and A. platanoides). It felt odd to see groundsel tree (Baccharis halimifolia) on the Harlem River side of the park, but it is near the brackish waters of the Hudson River. Another interesting plant was the escape species, jetbead (Rhodotypos scandens).  The weather was overcast and cool. Attendance was ten. The leader was Dr. Patrick L. Cooney.