CONNETQUOT RIVER STATE PARK PRESERVE
Oakdale, NY
3,473 acres

The largest state park on Long Island, Connetquot is an historic and scenic oasis amid surrounding suburban clutter.


Directions:

Take the Belt (Cross Island) parkway to exit 25A. From there, go east about 34 miles on the Southern State parkway to exit 44. Turn onto Sunrise Highway going east; the park entrance is 1.3 miles further east, on the left. (You have to drive to exit 47A and then turn around and come back because the park entrance is only on the west bound side.)


Geology:

The Connetquot River goes through the preserve.


History:

This is Long Island's largest state park. It is named for the Connetquot River, which runs through the preserve. Connetquot was the Indian word for "at the long river."

Montauk Highway was once the road used by the Secatog people. It was located at the first shallow ford (water crossing) north of the Great South Bay where the streams could be crossed on a fallen tree.

mid-1700s -- the Oakdale Grist Mill here was built by the Nicoll family, founder of the town of Islip. In 1972 it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The land was held by a syndicate of never more than 100 wealthy sportsmen as a private trout stream and hunting preserve for more than a century. Some of the famous men who came here were Daniel Webster, Ulysses S. Grant, General Sherman, Lorenzo Delmonico, and Charles L. Tiffany. Made available to the public in 1978.

The Main House here was originally Snedecor's Tavern (built around 1820). It was later the clubhouse of the South Side Sportsmen's Club of Long Island (1866-1973). It is now used as the New York State Regional Environmental Education Office and Interpretive Center.

1970s -- opens to the public.

(Cynthia Blair, Newsday Names of Long Island; http://www.newsday.com/features/custom/names)


Habitats:

Pitch pines and oaks line the tranquil river and fill the adjacent woodland. Pitch pines and white oaks are the dominant trees in this sandy soil, which is characteristic of the glacial outwash plains. Pitch pines are considered by some ecologists to be indicator plants for the so-called sand-plain community. Their especially deep root system penetrates the dry, porous ground to help them extract as much moisture as they can. They are the prevailing tree in the pine-oak barrens of Suffolk County which extend from here all the way to the eastern end of Long Island. However, white oaks are perhaps the most common tree found on Long Island, according to the Long Island Horticultural Society. The larger specimens are found not here but almost exclusively in the richer soils of the north shore.

The continental glaciers that descended upon New England stopped a few miles north of Connetquot, leaving their mark in a jumble of small hills known as the Ronkonkoma Terminal Moraine. The area south of the glacial edge on which Connetquot is located is known as an outwash plain, a gently sloping flattish zone composed of sand and gravel deposited by the glacier's meltwater. As these meltwater streams lost their velocity, they dumped enormous loads of debris, which became the broad plain that makes up the southern half of Long Island.


Trails:

You have to get a permit when you arrive. The Long Island Greenbelt Trail, part of the National Recreational Trail System, passes through the preserve for a distance of about four miles.

Cross the dam on a blacktop road and turn left about 150 yards further onto the red trail After a short walk find an overlook at the pond's edge. This 15-acre body of water was created in about 1750 as a reservoir to power a grist and cloth-fulling mill. The mill, located downstream a bit, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is open to the public. Since the pond is only a few miles from Great South Bay, many bay ducks, such as canvasback, redhead, greater and lesser scaup, and bufflehead are common.

A small fishing dock marked with a number 8 leads a few yards into the Connetquot River itself. A layer of glacial pebbles covered with dark silt makes up the shallow bottom. The Connetquot begins as a spring-fed seep several miles to the north. As the water is a cold 52 degrees when it emerges from the underground aquifer, it is particularly well suited for trout. Brook trout are native, but browns and rainbows have been introduced.

Continue on the red trail, past a small building on the left, to the yellow trail. Go left toward the river and the trout-hatchery complex. Continue to the right along a small pond as the yellow trail cuts left. Cross a wooden bridge, marked 20a, that separates an upper and a lower pond. If you are here in the fall, winter, or early spring, you may well see the great blue herons that winter at the far end of the upper pond. Approximately thirty to forty individuals spend the colder months in this spot where fish are plentiful before leaving fro breeding grounds in late April and early May. Exactly where these herons go is not known. However, one can be fairly sure they do not nest on Long Island.

Cross another bridge to a sandy road and walk left toward a trailer and building. Pick up a dirt path that parallels the paved road just past the last structure.

The terrain changes quite dramatically at D, for here the area looks barren, desolate, scrubby, and open. In 1977 a fire swept through 600 acres here, decimating all but a few of the hardier, taller pitch pines. Young white, black, scarlet, and scrub oaks and high and low-bush blueberries are rising from the poor soil Notice also the small pitch pines trying to regain their lost territory. Pitch-pine seeds are unusual in that they can germinate on sterile mineral soil containing no humus at all. The ability to sprout from dormant buds at the base of burned trunks also allows these hardy trees to regenerate after a fire.

Continue along the path until you meet a paved road, with a large open field to the left. Go a short distance and take the left fork toward the buildings and the millpond.

Walking time is about 1.75 hours and is relatively easy. There are many other trails that cover different areas in this large preserve. Camping at nearby Hecksher State Park in East Islip.

(Sources: Audubon guide; Geffen and Berglie, 1996: Chapter 16)


PLANT LIST:
Betty Lotowycz and Dr. Eric Lamont, June 13, 1987 (F&C = added to by Judith Fitzgerald and Dr. Patrick L. Cooney, May 8, 2002) * = blooming on 5/8/02


Trees:
Acer platanoides (Norway maple) F&C
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple) F&C
Amelanchier canadensis (coastal shadbush)
Betula populifolia (gray birch) F&C
Betula sp. (weeping birch) planted F&C
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) F&C *
Juniperus virginiana (red cedar) F&C
Morus alba (white mulberry)
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)
Pinus nigra (Austrian pine) planted F&C
Pinus rigida (pitch pine)
Pinus strobus (white pine) F&C
Platanus americana (American sycamore) F&C
Prunus serotina (black cherry) F&C
Pyrus malus (apple) F&C *
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus prinoides (chinquapin oak)
Quercus stellata (post oak)
Salix nigra (black willow) F&C
Sassafras albidum (sassafras) *
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm) F&C

Shrubs and sub-shrubs:
Alnus glutinosa (black alder) F&C
Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry) F&C *
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry) F&C *
Chamaedaphne calyculata (leatherleaf)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) F&C *
Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Eubotrys racemosa (fetterbush)
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus) F&C
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen)
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry) *
Gaylussacia dumosa (dwarf huckleberry)
Gaylussacia frondosa (dangleberry)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Hudsonia ericoides (golden heather)
Ilex glabra (inkberry)
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry)
Lyonia mariana (staggerbush)
Myrica asplenifolia ?
Myrica gale (sweet gale)
Myrica pensylvanica (bayberry)
Quercus ilicifolia (scrub oak)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pink azalea) F&C
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
Rhus copallina (winged sumac)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose) *
Rosa palustris (swamp rose) F&C
Salix discolor (pussy willow) F&C
Sambucus canadensis (common elderberry)
Syringa vulgaris (purple lilac) planted F&C *
Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry)
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry) *
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry)
Viburnum dentatum (hairy arrowwood viburnum)

Vines:
Apios americanum (groundnut)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet) F&C
Dioscorea villosa (wild yamroot) F&C
Euonymus fortunii (euonymus)? F&C
Mikania scandens (climbing hempweed)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper)
Rubus flagellaris (northern dewberry)
Rubus hispidus (dewberry)
Smilax glauca (sawbrier)
Smilax rotundifolia (round-leaved greenbrier)
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade) F&C
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Vitis aestivalis (summer grape) F&C
Wisteria floribunda (Japanese wisteria)

Herbs:
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)
Aletris farinosa (colic root)
Anemone quinquefolia (wood rush) F&C *
Apocynum sp. (dogbane)
Arisaema triphyllum (jack-in-the-pulpit)
Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) F&C
Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)
Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort) F&C
Baptisia tinctoria (yellow wild indigo)
Callitriche sp. (water starwort) lots
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold) F&C *
Cardamine pratensis (cuckoo flower)
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy)
Chrysosplenium americanum (golden saxifrage) F&C
Cirsium vulgaris (bull thistle) F&C
Coronilla varia (crown vetch)? F&C
Cypripedium acaule (pink lady's slipper)
Decodon verticillatus (water willow)
Desmodium rotundifolium (tick trefoil)
Drosera rotundifolia (round-leaved sundew)
Erigeron sp. (fleabane)
Eupatorium rotundifolium (round-leaved boneset)
Eupatorium dubium (eastern joe-pye-weed)
Euthamia tenuifolia (slender-leaved goldenrod)
Galium mollugo (wild madder)
Habenaria cristata? (crested fringed orchid)
Helianthemum canadense (frostweed)
Helianthemum propinquum
Hieracium pilosella (hawkweed)
Hydrocotyle americana (water pennywort)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow stargrass)
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed)
Iris pseudacorus (yellow flag) F&C
Iris versicolor (blue flag)
Krigia virginica (dwarf dandelion)
Lechea maritima? (beach pinweed)
Lechea minor (lesser pinweed)
Lechea villosa (hairy pinweed)
Lemna sp. (duckweed) F&C
Lespedeza sp. (bush clover)
Linaria canadensis (blue toadflax)
Linaria vulgaris (butter & eggs) F&C
Lotus corniculatus (birdfoot trefoil)
Lycopus americanus (American water horehound)
Lysimachia nummularia (moneywort) F&C
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife)
Lysimachia terrestris (swamp loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)
Medicago lupulina (black medick)
Melampyrum lineare (cowwheat)
Myosotis sp. (forget-me-not)
Narcissus sp. (white daffodil) *
Nymphaea odorata (fragrant white water lily) F&C
Oxalis stricta (yellow wood sorrel) *
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum) F&C
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) *
Plantago major (common plantain)
Polygala lutea (orange milkwort)
Polygala polygama (racemed milkwort)
Polygonum hydropiperoides (mild water pepper) F&C
Pontederia cordata (pickerelweed) F&C
Potentilla argentea (silvery cinquefoil) *
Potentilla canadensis (dwarf cinquefoil) F&C *
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Rhexia virginica (meadowbeauty)
Rumex acetosella (field sorrel) *
Rumex crispus (curled dock)
Rumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock) F&C
Sanguisorba canadensis (bloodroot)
Scleranthus annuus (knawel)
Silene dioica (red campion)?
Silene latifolia (white campion)
Silene vulgaris (bladder campion)
Sisyrinchium sp. (blue-eyed grass)
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle)
Solidago nemoralis? (gray goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough-stemmed goldenrod)
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion) F&C
Tephrosia virginiana (goat's rue)
Triadenum virginicum (marsh St. Johnswort)
Trientalis borealis (starflower) *
Trifolium arvense (rabbit-foot clover)
Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail) F&C
Urtica dioica var. procera (tall stinging nettle) F&C
Uvularia sessilifolia (sessile-leaved bellwort) *
Vallisneria americana (water celery)? F&C
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) F&C
Veronica serpyllifolia (thyme-leaved speedwell) F&C *
Viola cucullata (marsh blue violet) F&C *
Viola palmata (palmate-leaved violet)
Viola primulifolia (primrose-leaved violet)
Viola sagittata (arrow-leaved violet)
Viola sororia (common blue violet) *
Xyris torta? (slender yellow-eyed grass)

Rushes:
Juncus canadensis (Canada rush)? F&C
Juncus effusus (soft rush)

Sedges:
Carex bractii? (sedge)
Carex collinsia (sedge)
Carex incomporta (sedge)
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge) *
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Carex swanii (sedge)
Carex vestita (sedge)
Carex walteriana (Walter's sedge)
Cyperus sp.? (sedge)
Eleocharis sp. (spike rush)
Scirpus cyperinus (woolly grass bulrush) F&C
Scleria triglomerata (whipgrass)
Scleria sp. (stonerush)

Grasses:
Andropogon virginicus (brome grass)
Andropogon virginicus var. abbreviatus (bushy brome grass)
Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass) *
Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Panicum clandestinum (deer-tongue grass)
Panicum depauperatum (panic grass)
Panicum sp. (panic grass)
Panicum virgatum (switch grass) F&C
Piptochaetium avenaceum (grass)
Poa annua (annual bluegrass) F&C *
Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass) F&C *
Schizachyrium scoparium (little blue stem grass)
Tridens flavus (purple top grass) F&C

Ferns and Fern Allies:
Equisetum arvense (field horsetail)
Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)
Osmunda cinnamomea (cinnamon fern)
Osmunda regalis (royal fern)
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)
Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern)
Woodwardia areolata (netted chain fern)

Others:
Sphagnum sp. (sphagnum moss)


PARK STAFF & JOE BIETEL


Trees:
Abies concolor (white fir)
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)
Acer platanoides schwedler (Schwedler maple)
Acer rubrum (red maple)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)
Alnus glutinosa (European alder)
Amelanchier arborea (shadbush)
Betula pendulata (weeping birch)
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Carya glabra (pignut hickory)
Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory)
Castanea dentata (American chestnut)
Catalpa speciosa (catalpa)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar)
Cornus florida flowering dogwood
Fagus sylvatica pendula (European weeping beech)
Fagus sylvatica purpurea (copper beech)
Fraxinus americana (white ash)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Larix decidua (European larch)
Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum)
Malus spp. (apple)
Morus rubra (red mulberry)
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo)
Picea abies (Norway spruce)
Pinus resinosa (red pine)
Pinus rigida pitch pine
Pinus strobus (white pine)
Pinus sylvestris (scotch pine)
Platanus occidentalis American sycamore
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus serotina (black cherry)
Pyrus spp. (pear)
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)
Quercus prinoides (dwarf chestnut oak)
Quercus robur (English oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Quercus stellata (post oak)
Quercus velutina (black oak)
Salix nigra (black willow)
Sassafras albidum (sassafras)
Thuja occidentalis (arbor-vitae)
Tilia americana (American basswood)
Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac)
Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
Ulmus procera (English elm)
Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)

Shrubs:
Alnus serrulata (common alder)
Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry)
Baccharis halimifolia (groundsel tree)
Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry)
Chamaedaphne calyculata (leather leaf)
Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen)
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Comptonia peregrina (sweetfern)
Cornus amomum (swamp dogwood)
Cornus alternifolia (alternate-leaved dogwood)
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)
Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Eubotrys racemosa (fetterbush)
Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus)
Forsythia spp. (forsythia)
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen)
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry)
Gaylussacia dumosa (dwarf huckleberry)
Gaylussacia frondosa (dangleberry huckleberry)
Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel)
Hydrangea spp. (hydrangea)
Kalmia angustifolia (sheep laurel)
Ligustrum vulgare privet)
Lindera benzoin (spicebush)
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry)
Lyonia mariana (staggerbush)
Mitchella repens (partridgeberry)
Myrica gale (sweetgale)
Myrica pensylvanica (bayberry)
Prunus virginiana chokecherry)
Quercus ilicifolia (scrub oak)
Rhododendron viscosum (swamp azalea)
Rhus copallina (shining sumac)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
Rosa palustris (swamp rose)
Rosa rugosa (wrinkled rose)
Rubus hispidus (dewberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry)
Rubus phoenicolasius (wineberry)
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Sambucus canadensis (common elderberry)
Spiraea spp. (spiraea)
Syringa spp. (lilac)
Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry)
Vaccinium atrococcum (black highbush blueberry)
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry)
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry)
Viburnum cassinoides (witherod viburnum)
Viburnum dentatum (arrowwood viburnum)

Vines:
Campsis radicans (trumpet vine)
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Mikania scandens (climbing hempweed)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia Creeper)
Polygonum scandens (climbing false buckwheat)
Smilax glauca (sawbrier)
Smilax hispida (greenbrier)
Smilax rotundifolia (round-leaved greenbrier)
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)
Wisteria floribunda (wisteria)
Vitis aestivalis (summer grape)
Vitis labrusca (fox grape)

Herbs:
Achillea millefolium (yarrow)
Aethusa cynapium (fools parsley)
Agrimonia spp. (agrimony)
Ajuga reptans (bugleweed)
Aletris farinosa (colicroot)
Alliaria officinalis (garlic mustard)
Amaranthus hybridus (green amaranth)
Amaranthus retroflexus (green amaranth)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)
Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anemone quinquefolia (wood anemone)
Antennaria neglecta (field pussytoes)
Anthemis cotula (mayweed)
Apios americana (groundnut)
Apocynum medium (intermediate dogbane)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Apocynum medium (common milkweed)
Apocynum cannabinum (Indian hemp)
Arabis glabra (tower mustard)
Arctium minus (common burdock)
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry)
Arenaria serpyllifolia (thyme-leaved sandwort)
Arisaema atrorubens (jack in the pulpit)
Asclepias tuberosa (butterflyweed)
Asclepias amplexicaulis
Aster divaricatus (white wood aster)
Aster dumosus (bushy aster)
Aster ericoides (heath aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster linariifolius (stiff aster)
Aster novae belgii (New York)
Aster patens (late purple aster)
Aster puniceus (purple-stemmed aster)
Aster simplex (panicled aster)
Aster tradescanti (Tradescant's aster)
Aster undulatus (wavy-leaved aster)
Aster vimineus (small white aster)
Baptisia tinctoria (wild indigo)
Barbarea vulgaris (common wintercress)
Bidens comosa leafy (bracted beggar ticks)
Boehmeria cylindrica (false nettle)
Brassica rapa (field mustard)
Brassica kaber (charlock)
Cacalia tuberosa (tuberous Indian plantain)
Callitriche heterophylla (large water starwort)
Calopogon pulchellus (calopogon)
Caltha palustris (marsh marigold)
Campanula aparinoides (bedstraw bellflower)
Campanula rapunculoides (creeping bellflower)
Cardamine pensylvanica (Pennsylvania bittercress)
Cardamine pratensis (cuckoo flower)
Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed)
Centaurea nigra (black knapweed)
Cerastium vulgatum (mouse-ear chickweed)
Chelone glabra (white turtlehead)
Chenopodium album (lamb's quarters)
Chenopodium botrys (Jerusalem oak)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy)
Chrysopsis falcata (sickle-leaved golden aster)
Chrysopsis mariana (Maryland golden aster)
Chrysosplenium americanum (golden saxifrage)
Cichorium intybus (chicory)
Circaea alpina (smaller enchanter's nightshade)
Circaea quadrisulcata (enchanter's nightshade)
Cicuta maculata (water hemlock)
Cirsium muticum (swamp thistle)
Cirsium vulgare bull thistle)
Cirsium arvense Canada thistle)
Commelina communis Asiatic dayflower)
Conium maculatum poison hemlock)
Corallorhiza maculata spotted coralroot)
Coreopsis lanceolata lance-leaved coreopsis)
Crepis capillaris large rough hawkweed)
Crepis tectorum narrow-leaved hawkweed)
Crepis tectorum narrow-leaved hawkweed)
Cuscuta gronovii dodder)
Cypripedium acaule (pink lady's slipper)
Datura stramonium jimsonweed)
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace)
Decodon verticillatus (swamp loosestrife)
Desmodium canadense (showy tick trefoil)
Desmodium rotundifolium (prostrate tick trefoil)
Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink)
Draba verna (whitlow grass)
Drosera intermedia (spatulate-leaved sundew)
Drosera rotundifolia (round-leaved sundew)
Echium vulgare (viper's bugloss)
Epigaea repens (trailing arbutus)
Epilobium coloratum (purple-leaved willowherb)
Epilobium glandulosum (northern willowherb)
Erechtites hieracifolia (pilewort)
Erigeron annuus (daisy fleabane)
Erigeron canadensis (horseweed)
Erodium cicutarium (storksbill)
Eupatorium dubium (Joe-Pye-weed)
Eupatorium hyssoppifolia (hyssop-leaved thoroughwort)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-Pye-weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Eupatorium pilosum (hairy thoroughwort)
Euphorbia cyparissias (cypress purge)
Euthamia graminifolia (lance-leaved goldenrod)
Euthamia tenuifolia (slender fragrant goldenrod)
Fagopyrum sagittatum (buckwheat)
Galinsoga ciliata (gallant soldiers)
Galium asprellum (rough bedstraw)
Galium claytonia (Clayton's bedstraw)
Galium mollugo (wild madder)
Galium triflorum (fragrant bedstraw)
Glechoma hederacea (gill-over-the-ground)
Geranium maculatum (wild geranium)
Geum canadense (white avens)
Gnaphalium obtusifolium (sweet everlasting)
Goodyera pubescens (downy rattlesnake plantain)
Habenaria blephariglottis (white fringed orchid)
Habenaria clavellata (small woodland orchid)
Habenaria cristata (crested yellow orchid)
Helenium autumnale (sneezeweed)
Helianthemum canadense (frostweed)
Hemerocallis fulva (tawny day lily)
Hieracium aurantiacum (orange hawkweed)
Hieracium floribundum (smooth hawkweed)
Hieracium pilosella (mouse-ear hawkweed)
Hieracium pratense (king devil)
Hudsonia tomentosa false heather
Hypericum canadense (Canadian St. Johnswort)
Hypericum mutilum (dwarf St. Johnswort)
Hypericum perforatum (common St. Johnswort)
Hypericum virginicum (marsh St. Johnswort)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow stargrass)
Impatiens capensis (spotted touch me not)
Iris versicolor (large blue flag)
Krigia virginica (dwarf dandelion)
Lactuca canadensis (wild lettuce)
Lactuca scariola (prickly lettuce)
Lepidium virginicum (poor man's pepper)
Lespedeza hirta (hairy bush clover)
Lespedeza procumbens (trailing bush clover)
Lespedeza violacea (violet bush clover)
Linaria vulgaris (butter and eggs)
Linaria canadensis (blue toadflax)
Linum virginianum (yellow flax)
Listera australis (southern twayblade)
Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower)
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco)
Lobelia nuttallii (Nuttall's lobelia)
Lotus corniculatus (birdfoot trefoil)
Lupinus perennis (wild lupine)
Lychnis alba (evening lychnis)
Lycopus americanus (cut-leaved water horehound)
Lycopus virginicus (bugleweed)
Lysimachia quadrifolia (whorled loosestrife)
Lysimachia terrestris (swamp loosestrife)
Maianthemum canadense (Canada mayflower)
Malva moschata (musk mallow)
Malva neglecta (common mallow)
Medeola virginiana (Indian cucumberroot)
Medicago lupulina (black medick)
Melampyrum linear (cowwheat)
Melilotus alba (white sweet clover)
Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover)
Mentha piperita (peppermint)
Monotropa hypopithys (pinesap)
Monotropa uniflora (Indian pipe)
Myosotis scorpioides (forget me not)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Oenothera fruticosa (sundrops)
Oenothera parviflora (small flowered evening primrose)
Opuntia humifusa (prickly pear cactus)
Ornithogalum umbellatum (star of Bethlehem)
Oxalis europaea (yellow wood sorrel)
Oxalis stricta (yellow wood sorrel)
Peltandra virginica (arrow arum)
Penstemon digitalis (beardtongue)
Phytolacca americana (pokeweed)
Plantago lanceolata (English plantain)
Plantago major (common plantain)
Polygala polygala (racemed milkwort)
Polygonum coccineum (swamp smartweed)
Polygonum hydropiper (common smartweed)
Polygonum hydropiperoides (mild waterpepper)
Polygonum persicaria (lady's thumb)
Polygonum sagittatum (arrow leaved tearthumb)
Polygonum virginianum (Virginia knotweed)
Portulaca oleracea (common purslane )
Potentilla argentea (silver cinquefoil)
Potentilla canadense (dwarf cinquefoil)
Potentilla recta (rough-fruited cinquefoil)
Potentilla simplex (common cinquefoil)
Prenanthes serpentaria (lion's foot)
Prunella vulgaris (heal all)
Pyxidanthera barbulata (pyxie moss)
Ranunculus acris (common butter cup)
Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup)
Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)
Rhexia mariana (Maryland meadowbeauty)
Rorippa nasturtium-anagallis (water cress)
Rudbeckia hirta (black eyed Susan)
Rumex acetosella (sheep sorrel)
Rumex crispus (cris-leaved dock)
Rumex obtusifolius (broad-leaved dock)
Sagittaria latifolia (broad-leaved arrowhead)
Sanguisorba canadensis (Canadian burnet)
Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet)
Satureja vulgaris (wild basil)
Saxifraga pensylvanica (swamp saxifrage)
Scutellaria lateriflora (maddog skullcap)
Scutellaria galericulata (marsh skullcap)
Senecio aureus (golden ragwort)
Seriocarpus asteroides (toothed white topped aster)
Seriocarpus linifolius (narrow leaved topped aster)
Silene cucubalus (bladder campion)
Silene armeria (sweet William catchfly)
Silene noctiflora (night flowering catchfly)
Silphium laciniatum (compass plant)
Sisymbrium officinale (hedge mustard)
Sisyrinchium albidum (white-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium atlanticum (blue-eyed stargrass)
Sisyrinchium montanum (blue-eyed grass)
Smilacina racemosa (false Solomon's seal)
Solanum carolinense (horse nettle)
Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet nightshade)
Solanum nigrum (common nightshade)
Solidago bicolor (silverrod)
Solidago fistulosa (pine barren goldenrod)
Solidago juncea (early goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod)
Solidago odora (sweet goldenrod)
Solidago patula (rough-leaved goldenrod)
Solidago puberula (downy goldenrod)
Solidago rugosa (rough stemmed goldenrod)
Specularia perfoliata (Venus looking glass)
Spiranthes cernua (nodding ladies tresses)
Spiranthes gracilis (slender ladies tresses)
Stellaria pubera (common chickweed)
Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage)
Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion)
Tephrosia virginiana (goatsrue)
Thalictrum polygamum (tall meadow rue)
Trichostema dichotomum (blue curls)
Trientalis borealis (starflower)
Trifolium agrarium (hop clover)
Trifolium arvense (rabbits foot clover)
Trifolium dubium (least hop clover)
Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover)
Trifolium pratense (red clover)
Trifolium procumbens (smaller hop clover)
Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot)
Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail)
Urtica gracilis (slender nettle)
Uvularia sessilifolia (wild oats)
Verbascum blattaria (yellow moth mullein)
Verbascum lychnitus (white moth mullein)
Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)
Verbena hastata (blue vervain)
Veronica anagallis aquatica (water speedwell)
Veronica officinalis (common speedwell)
Vicia americana (purple vetch)
Vicia cracca (cow vetch)
Viola blanda (sweet white violet)
Viola brittoniana (coastal violet)
Viola cucullata (marsh blue violet)
Viola fimbriatula (northern downy violet)
Viola lanceolata (lance-leaved violet)
Viola pallens (northern white violet)
Viola pedata (birdfoot violet)
Viola primulifolia (primrose leaved violet)
Viola sororia (common blue violet)
Xyris sp. (yellow eyed stargrass)