CALVERTON PONDS PRESERVE
Denis and Catherine Krusos Ecological Research Area
Calverton, Suffolk County, NY
350 Acres
No pets.


Directions:

From the Long Island Expressway:
Take Exit 70, Manorville-Eastport (CR 111). At the end of the off-ramp, go north. (YOU WILL PASS THE MANORVILLE TRAIL INFORMATION CENTER ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE ROAD. VISIT THIS PLACE; IT IS A GREAT RESOURCE FOR L.I. HIKING INFORMATION) Travel 0.25 miles to Ryerson Ave. (The Manorville Post Office is on the corner.) Go right on Ryerson, crossing railroad tracks, 0.2 miles to North St. Go right on North St. for 0.2 miles. Road curves to the left, becoming wading River Manor Rd. Follow Wading River Manor Rd. north 0.8 miles to Old River Rd. (Not River Road). Go right on Old River Rd. 0.4 miles to the small parking area on the left (with the wooden gate)


Geology:

Dan Fagin (http://www.lihistory.com/1/hs108a.htm) wrote an article about geologist Steven Engelbright. Scientists have known for a long time that many of Long Island's lakes and ponds, including Lake Ronkonkoma and Lake Success, were so-called ``kettlehole lakes'' formed by large chunks of ice left behind by the last glacier. When those chunks melted, they left deep depressions that groundwater filled. But Swan Pond and many nearby ponds in Calverton, Englebright discovered, were shaped like frying pans, not kettles.

To discover the reasons for this, the geologist started digging 24 feet down into a Shelter Island swamp. Englebright uncovered dry sandy soil at the bottom that looked exactly like the sand now found in the pine barrens of Brookhaven and Southampton. Over hundreds or even thousands of years the gradually rising water table had transformed a dry area into a bog.

Englebright believes something similar happened at Swan Pond. Like the kettleholes, the pond was a product of the last Ice Age, but was formed by a thin layer of melting permafrost, not a big chunk of glacial ice. The shallow depression was exposed for thousands of years until the rising water table finally claimed it.

If the tide keeps rising, he said, many more formerly dry areas will eventually flood, including the back yards of suburban homes in communities farther inland, such as Middle Island and Yaphank. ``Those neighborhoods are the next Calverton ponds,'' Englebright said, ``whether they like it or not.''


History:

The eastern Suffolk County town of Calverton was called Conungum or Kanungum, meaning a "fixed line" or "boundary," by the Indians.

Later it was known as Hulse's Turnout because it was the point at which travelers turned north to the Hulses' place in Wading River.

1844 -- Calverton also known as Baiting Hollow Station, the name it received with the railroad's arrival.

1868 -- Calverton named after its first postmaster, Bernard J. Calvert.

1950's-1995 -- Calverton was home to the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Company plant, manufacturing such planes as F-14 Tomcats and E-2C Hawkeyes for the Navy.

(Cynthia Blair, Newsday Names of Long Island; http://www.newsday.com/features/custom/names)


Habitats:

Coastal Plain Ponds, Barrens. Calverton Ponds and the headwaters of the Peconic River contain one of the highest concentrations of rare and endangered species in New York State, with more than 30 rare plants, including three that are globally threatened.

Coastal Plain Ponds are characterized by nutrient poor, acidic water and a gently sloping shore. Most Coastal Plain Ponds are not stream-fed, but are directly connected to groundwater. Pond water levels rise and fall with the water table, reflecting seasonal and annual rainfall patterns. Consequently, a unique community of plants grows along the pond shores. Periods of both low and high water levels are essential for their survival.

Source: http://www.hike-li.com/pictureweek/pictweek2_00.htm


FINAL PLANT LIST:
Zaremba and Lamont (a few species added by Judith Fitzgerald and Dr. Patrick L. Cooney, 4/26/02) * = date blooming

Zaremba, Robert E. And Eric E. Lamont. 1993. "The status of the coastal plain pondshore community in New York." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 120(2):180-187.


Trees:
Acer rubrum (red maple) Aceraceae
Betula populifolia (gray birch)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar) Cupressaceae
Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo) Cornaceae
Pinus rigida (pitch pine) Pinaceae
Quercus alba (white oak)
Quercus palustris (pin oak)
Quercus rubra (red oak)
Sassafras albidum (coastal shadbush)

Shrubs:
Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry)
Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush)
Chamaedaphne calyculata (leatherleaf) *
Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepperbush)
Comptonia peregrina (sweetfern)
Decodon verticillata (swamp loosestrife)
Eubotrys racemosa (fetterbush)
Gaultheria procumbens (checkerberry)
Gaylussacia baccata (black huckleberry) *
Ilex glabra (inkberry holly)
Kalmia angustifolia (lambkill)
Lyonia ligustrina (maleberry)
Myrica pensylvanica (bayberry)
Rhododendron periclymenoides (pink azalea)
Salix discolor (pussy willow) *
Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry) *
Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry)
Vaccinium pallidum (hillside blueberry) *

Vines:
Smilax sp. (greenbrier)

Herbs:
Agalinis purpurea var. purpurea (smooth agalinis)
Agalinis virgata (agalinis)
Aster nemoralis (bog aster)
Bidens spp. (beggar ticks)
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (ox-eye daisy)
Conyza canadensis (horseweed)
Coreopsis rosea (pink tickseed) Asteraceae
Drosera filiformis (thread-leaf sundew) Droseraceae
Erigeron canadensis
Eriocaulon aquaticum (pipewort)
Eriocaulon septangulare (pipewort)
Eupatorium leucolepis (white-bracted boneset)
Euthamia tenuifolia (slender-leaved goldenrod)
Gratiola aurea (yellow hedge-hyssop) Scrophulariaceae
Hedyotis uniflora (bluets) Rubiaceae
Hemicarpha micrantha (hemicarpha)
Hypericum adpressum (St. Johnswort) Clusiaceae
Hypericum canadense (Canadian Saint Johnswort)
Hypericum denticulatum (coppery Saint Johnswort)
Hypericum gymnanthum (Saint Johnswort)
Iris prismatica (smaller blue flag) Iridaceae
Lachnanthes caroliniana (red root) Haemodoraceae
Lachnanthes tinctoria (red root)
Lespedeza angustifolia (narrow-leaved bushclover) Fabaceae
Linum striatum (ridgestem yellow flax) Linaceae
Lobelia nuttallii (Nuttall's lobelia) Campanulaceae
Myriophyllum pinnatum (water milfoil) Haloragaceae
Nymphaea odorata (fragrant white water lily) Nymphaceae
Polygonum spp. (knotweed) Polygonaceae
Potentilla canadensis (dwarf cinquefoil)
Proserpinaca pectinata (coastal plain mermaid weed) Haloragaceae
Rhexia mariana (dull meadow beauty) Melastomataceae
Rotala ramosior (tooth cup) Lythraceae
Sagittaria teres (slender arrowhead)
Solidago tenuifolia (goldenrod)
Utricularia biflora (bladderwort) Utriculaceae
Utricularia fibrosa (fibrous bladderwort)
Utricularia geminiscapa (mixed bladderwort)
Utricularia juncea (rushlike bladderwort)
Utricularia purpurea (spotted bladderwort)
Utricula radiata (floating bladderwort)
Utricularia subulata (slender bladderwort)
Xyris difformis (sandy riverswamp yellow-eyed grass)
Xyris smalliana (large yellow-eyed grass)

Rushes:
Juncus canadensis (Canada rush) Juncaceae
Juncus effusus (soft rush)
Juncus militaris (bayonet rush)
Juncus pelocarpus (rhizomatous rush)

Sedges:
Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania sedge) *
Carex walteriana var. brevis (Walter's sedge)
Eleocharis equisetoides (horsetail spikerush)
Eleocharis melanocarpa (black fruited spikerush)
Eleocharis olivacea (olive spikerush)
Eleocharis ovata (ovate spikerush)
Eleocharis robbinsii (Robbin's spikerush)
Eleocharis tricostata (trigonous spikerush)
Eleocharis tuberculosa (tuberculate spikerush)
Fuirena pumila (umbrella grass)
Fuirena squarrosa (umbrella grass)
Psilocarya nitens
Psilocarya scirpoides
Rhynchospora capitellata (beakrush)
Rhynchospora inundata (beakrush)
Rhynchospora macrostachya (beakrush)
Rhynchospora nitens (beakrush)
Rhynchospora scirpoides (beakrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wooly grass bulrush)
Scirpus subterminalis (water bulrush) Cyperaceae
Scleria reticularis var. pubescens (stonerush)
Scleria reticularis var. reticularis (stonerush)

Grasses:
Andropogon virginicus (brome grass)
Calamagrostis canadensis (Canadian bluejoint grass) Poaceae
Muhlenbergia capillaris (hairlike muhlenbergia)
Muhlenbergia torreyana (Torrey's muhlenbergia)
Paspalum spp. (paspalum grass)
Phragmites australis (giant reed grass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little blue stem grass)
Setaria spp. (foxtail grass)

Ferns and fern allies:
Lycopodium appressum (southern clubmoss)
Lycopodium inundatum (bog clubmoss) Lycopodiaceae
Lycopus amplectens (water horehound)
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern)

Others:
British soldiers
Sphagnum moss