Notes on Winter Botany




Gymnosperms

..... .....
cones fir, hemlock, larch, pine, spruce
cone, woody & open, reddish-brown arborvitae
cone, fleshy & berry-like white cedar
cone, 3-6 fleshy coalescent scales, light blue & glaucous red cedar
seed surrounded by fleshy aril yew


Angiosperms

Dicots

  Magnolia Witch Hazel Pink Dill Rose Aster
simple aggregates of follicles  magnolias ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
capsules (a dry, dehiscent fr composed of more than 1 carpel) birthwort family Asarum & Aristolochia witch hazel ..... trailing arbutus, teaberry (resembles a berry) Scrophulariaceae, Bignoniaceae, enchanter's nightshade, Philadelphus, euonymus Orobanchaceae (2-valved, many seeded); Plantago (oval capsule)
capsules, globose dry head formed by numerous somewhat cohering capsules ..... sweetgum ..... ..... ..... .....
capsules, inflated by calyx ..... ..... deptford pink ..... bladdernut .....
capsule, poricidal (opening by a series of pores near the top) poppy ..... ..... ..... Campanulaceae .....
nutlets Nymphaeaceae (water lily) ..... ..... .....   Verbenaceae, Lamiaceae, holly (nutlets in fleshy covering), Boraginaceae (stickseed)
involucel = diminutive of involucre (any structure that surrounds the base of another structure) ..... Corylus (hazel nut) ..... ..... ..... Dipsacaceae (teasel)
capsule, pyxis = opening by a lid ..... ..... purslane ..... ..... .....
capsule, denticidal = opening apically, leaving a ring of teeth ..... ..... chickweeds ..... ..... .....
capsule, 2 valved, many-seeded; or 2-chambered ..... ..... ..... ..... Orobanchaceae blue toadflax (Scroph)
capsule, loculicidal = dehiscing lengthwise, sutures opening within a locule ..... ..... ..... Malvaceae, Cistaceae (rockrose) Acanthaceae Indian pipe, pine drops
catkins ..... ..... ..... willows ..... .....
catkins, resembling hops ..... eastern hop hornbeam ..... ..... ..... .....
catkins -- & small cone-like catkins (strobili) ..... alder ..... ..... ..... .....
capsule, septicidal ..... ..... ..... Rhododendron, Kalmia, Pieris, Lyonia ..... .....
acorn = dry, indehiscent, hard pericarp .... oaks (Fagaceae) ..... ..... ..... .....
nuts, hard, thick  shell ..... hickories, walnuts (Juglandaceae) ..... ..... ..... .....
nuts, us 2 together in an urn-shaped prickly involucre which splits into 4 valves ..... beech (Fagaceae) ..... ..... ..... .....
nuts, us 3 together in a prickly involucre (bur) ..... chestnut ..... ..... ..... .....
nut, surrounded by 8 linear bracts persisting as a sort of bur ..... Myrica (bayberry) ..... ..... ..... .....
nut-like ..... ..... ..... Tilia ..... .....
scales ..... birch (Betulaceae) ..... ..... ..... .....
hazel nuts ..... hazel nut ..... ..... ..... .....
capsule (a dry, dehiscent fruit composed of more than one carpel) ..... poplars, cottonwood ..... st. johnswort enchanter's nightshade (Onagraceae); agrimony (turbinate capsule) .....
capsules, 2-chambered or 2-parted         ..... dodder (Cuscutaceae), Plantago major & lanceolata, turtlehead agalinis (many Scrophs)
capsules, 3-valved or 3-chambered       sundew; pinweed (Cistaceae)    
capsule, 3-5 chambered         swamp loosestrife (Lythraceae)  
capsule, 4-chambered           jimson weed (Solanaceae)
capsule, 5-parted       capsule, 5-parted    
capsule enclosed by persistent calyx ..... ..... ....... pinweed (Cistaceae) ..... .....
capsule, turbinate .....   ..... ..... agrimony .....
capsule, woody ..... ..... ..... Ericaceae (heath - Rhododendron) ..... .....
samara (an indehiscent, winged fr) ..... elm .....   hop tree ash
samaras, cone-like aggregates tulip tree ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
samara (keys) ..... ..... ..... ..... maple .....
utricle (small, bladdery achene-like fr w seed loosely surrounded by the fr wall) ..... ..... pigweed, saltwort (1-seeded bladder in 5-lobed calyx) wild cucumber ..... .....
silique (wall peeling away from a papery central partition) ..... ..... ..... mustard family ..... .....
silicle = a silique which is not more than 2-3 longer than wide ..... ..... ..... mustard family ..... .....
multiples of achenes ..... sycamore (round balls) ..... ..... ..... ....
achenes (us one-seeded, dry fr) clematis Cannabaceae (hemp) buckwheat, knotweeds, dock ..... avens sunflower, burdock, cocklebur, beggar ticks
achenes without pappus, achene not hidden (from Carol Levine)           Achillea, Artemisia, Helianthus (some), Heliopsis (some), Lapsanna, Ratibida, Rudbeckia, Matricaria (short crown), Tanacetum (short crown)
achenes without pappus, achene hiddenw/in involucre           Arctium, Xanthium, Ambrosia
achenes w/ pappus, double circle of pappus           Aster (some), Centaurea (some), Chrysopsis, Lactuca (some), Vernonia
achenes w/ pappus, single circle of pappus, hairlike, capillary           sessile: Anaphalis,  Antennaria, Aster (some), Carduus, Conyza, Erechtites, Eupatorium, Euthamia, Gnaphalium, Hieracium, Inula, Mikania, Prenanthes, Senecio, Solidago, Sonchus;

beaked:   Lactuca, Taraxacum

achenes w/ pappus, single circle of pappus, hairlike, plumose           sessile: Cirsium Leontodon, Liatris, Onopordum

beaked: Trapogon

achenes w/ pappus, single circle of pappus, stiff scales or teeth           dark:   Bidens

Light:

Long, thin scales w/ wide base: Helenium Verbesina (some)

small teeth or scales:

winged: Coreopsis Silphium Verbesina (some)

no wings: Centaurea (some) Cichorium Echinacea Helianthus (some)  Heliopsis (some) Rudbeckia (some)

cypsela (achene with an adnate calyx) ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... aster family
legume (dry, several-seeded, & dehiscing down both sutures; single carpel) ..... ..... ..... ..... pea family, honey locust, redbud .....
loment = a legume w pronounced constrictions between the seeds; dehiscing transversely between the seeds ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... Desmodium (tick-trefoil)
schizocarp (a fr that splits into separate carpels at maturity) ..... ..... ..... mallow parsley .....
drupe (a fleshy fr w/ a firm endocrap permanently enclosing the us solitary seed) moonberry, sassafrass Myricaceae (bayberry), hackberry ..... ...... cherry, peach Viburnum
pome (a fr w/ a core from a compound, inferior ovary) ..... ..... ..... ..... apple, pear .....
hesperidium = septations conspicuous, these lined with fleshy hairs ..... ..... ..... ..... citrus fruits .....
accessory (formed by expanded dome-like receptacle of a single flower; covered w/ numerous achenes) ..... ..... ..... persimmon strawberry & false strawberry .....
berry (fleshy fr derived from a single pistil) laurel, barberry ..... cactus (pulpy berry) Vaccinium (blue-berry), Gaylussacia (huckleberry) grape, tomato honeysuckle, partridgeberry (Rubiaceae)
berry, pulpy (paper-like clayx) ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ground cherry
berry-like ..... ..... ..... teaberry (Ericaceae) ..... Sambucus (elderberry)
pepo = berry w a leathery rind ..... ..... ..... ..... squash family wild pumpkin .....
hip = vase-like leathery hypanthium containing several achenes ..... ..... ..... ..... rose .....
follicle = (derived from a single carpel, dehiscing along one suture) clustered small dry follicles gold thread (3-7) ..... ..... ..... ninebark milkweeds, periwinkle (Apocynaceae)
berries, aggregate (fr derived from 2 or more pistils of a single flower) ..... mulberry ..... ..... Rubus .....


Angiosperms: Monocots

..... Water Plantain Aroids Spiderwort Lily
achene arrowhead ..... Cyperaceae (sedge) .....
achenes, turgid burhead ..... ..... .....
achenes, many, flat doughtnut-shaped receptacle water plantain ..... ..... .....
achenes, small, dry, indehiscent packed into a round head ..... ..... burreed .....
narrowly obpyramidal, hard & dry, indehiscent ..... sweet flag ..... .....
achenes, linear, in cattail, frs small, dry     cattail  
utricle ..... golden club (1-seeded) ..... .....
spadix surrounded by spathe ..... skunk cabbage, arrow arum, jack-in-pulpit ..... .....
caryopsis (grain)  = seed & pericarp completedly fused ..... ..... grasses .....
capsule, 1-chambered       rattlesnake-plantain (orchid family)
         
capsule, loculicidal = dehiscing lengthwise, sutures opening within a locule ..... ..... Juncaceae (rush), spiderwort, day flower iris, Allium, lily, trout lily, yamroot (3-winged) 
capsule, opening by 3 longitudinal slits but remaining closed top & bottom ..... ..... ..... orchids
capsules, 3- winged ..... .....   wild yam root
  ..... .....   .....
achene-like ..... ..... ..... pickerelweed
berry ..... ..... ..... greenbrier, trillium, Indian cucumber root, Solomon's seal, false Solomon's seal, lily of the valley, rattlesnake plantain (orchid family)
capsule, septicidal = dehiscing lengthwise, the sutures splitting a septum ..... ..... ..... yucca


Pistils bear the carpels;

carpels bear the ovules;

ovules are the seeds.

ovule = a young or undeveloped seed

carpel = fertile leaf (megasporophyll) of an angiosperm, which bears the ovules.  A pistil is composed of one or more carpels.  

pistil = female organ of a flower, composed of one or more carpels.

gynoecium = collective term for the carpels

single carpeled gynoecium = unicarpellate gynoecium (e.g. pea family)

two or more carpeled gynoecium = apocarpous gynoecium (buttercups)

two or more carpels fused gynoecium = syncarpous gynoecium  (figwort, lily, evening primrose)